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Moments (1948-1988), block B

--year 2018--

 

 

 

Continuation of MOMENTS, block A

(here, 1976 to 1980)

 

 

 

_________________________________________________________

 

The original and complete version of this book was published

in 2010 in SPANISH (digital and paper versión) at

https://www.bubok.es/libros/187278/Mi-memoria-historica-19481988

 

 

 

 

The complete version of this book was published

in 2018 in ENGLISH (only digital version) at:

https://www.bubok.es/libros/254725/Moments-19481988

 

This ENGLISH version incorporates 45 images

that are not in the Spanish version.

_________________________________________________________

 

 

 

Moments (1948-1988) for web.
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Year 1976, news

SPAIN, March 18: The minimum wage is set at 345 pesetas daily (2.07 EUR).

ARGENTINA, March 24: Coup d'Etat. Videla rises to Power.

SPAIN, May 03: A new daily newspaper, EL PAÍS, appears: 250,000 copies.

SPAIN, July 03: Adolfo Suárez, President of the Government. General surprise.

SPAIN, July 15: The King communicates to the Pope his intention not to use the privilege of presenting bishops.

CHINA, July 28: The most terrible earthquake in its history, 8.3 on the Richter scale. There are at least 750,000 dead.

ECUADOR, August 11: 2 archbishops, 13 bishops and 27 ecclesiastics, representatives of 14 countries, have been arrested and expelled from Quito airport. The Military Junta is not worried about possible excommunications, they have published. Three of the prelates, upon returning to Chile, were beaten at the airport by the DINA of Pinochet.

CHINA, September 09: Mao-Tse-tung is dead.

SPAIN, November 18: A year after Franco's death, the Cortes vote for their self-dissolution, YES for Political Reform; 267 votes in favor were necessary and there were 425 (80.03%), out of a total of 531 (34 absences, 13 abstentions and 59 noes).

SPAIN, December 22: Santiago Carrillo has been arrested in Madrid. He wore a gray-haired wig. He is secretary general of the PCE.

 

About a Statistic

(A propósito de una Estadística)

 

In February 1976, the Official Bulletin of the Diocese of Tarazona published a very complete number with the data of the diocesan clergy: ages, place of birth, distribution, inhabitants of parishes and other information, all useful and well classified.

 

When I saw this Bulletin, I spontaneously left this sentence for my companions: “These ones do not know what they have done!”... For us, those of the bishopric were “these”. Just as, when we went there, they said among themselves: “Come down, these are here” (for us, the priests of Vera).

 

But it was not any kind of hatred, envy, or personal resentment, but a somewhat different conception of church. In the Official Bulletin came just the reliable data we needed “to prove” that the diocese had no prospects for the future or went anywhere. In 1976, it had 101,610 inhabitants.

 

At that time, we met sometimes one ten of diocesan priests, who agreed more in post-conciliar tendencies. I proposed to them a publishable brochure design where we would analyze the diocesan reality with the own data of the Official Bulletin. This booklet would be sent free of charge, with our own money, to all the priests of the diocese and signed by our group.

 

They accepted all, for two common reasons: analysis was good for ourselves and, on the other hand, we needed to make clear what we felt about the structural contradictions: there was no prospective or collective horizon, which was hampering the consistency and vocational motivation.

 

On the introductory page of the booklet, and on behalf of the group, [1] I wrote:

 

 

We have not done this work to “let off steam” at anything, nor to stir up any confusion, nor to boast anything (because we do not feel models, nor do we have great accomplishments to offer). Not to bitter life to anyone, or to joke around or any other secret reason. We have done so because we are concerned about the progress of our diocese of Tarazona, 11 years after the Council's closure...

 

There are no ulterior motives. If there were, the work would lose value. And also, because what we have to say, we say it with freedom and clarity in the clues of solution. We would like no one to misinterpret this work. We admit that you do not agree with the interpretation or with the clues of solution. We also admit some possible mistake. But we would not see well that he was attacked or despised. The only civilized and Christian attack is that others do similar work and propose another interpretation. The rest are only words.

 

We ask nothing more than respect and reflection. Our language is direct because we do not like to walk around. We believe that it is convenient to create questions for ourselves from official data... We are sure that you will all understand this way.

 

 

 

The geographical boundaries of the diocese of Tarazona, one of the oldest in Europe, [2] remained unchanged from 1130 to 1956. Remained legitimately in the diocese of Tarazona a part of the clegy of Navarra or Soria of 1956, the best placed.

 

This generated a curious situation: in an Aragonese diocese, the non-Aragonese clergy had more decisive power than the autochthonous. Likewise in the six dioceses of Aragon, for many years there was not even a single Aragonese bishop, something unthinkable in their contiguous communities, Catalonia, Navarra and the Basque Country.

 

In A propósito de una estadística, we devoted a page to enumerating diocesan functions that were in the hands of non-Aragonese, practically the most important positions:

 

 

 

[1] This booklet had 62 pages; and it was financed, signed and sent in March 1976. Its authors were the following priests: ALFREDO Alonso, CECILIO Berges, JESÚS-VICENTE Bueno, JULIO Calvo, FLORIÁN Cuenca, JUAN-PABLO Forcén, SANTOS Hernando, PEDRO Mendoza and BLAS Romero. The initial design was proposed by Pedro Mendoza. And the typographic format, as well as the shipping, was made by Juan Pablo Forcén.

 

[2] The first documents about the diocese of TARAZONA (Zaragoza) date from the year 449. And from 465, the bishops of Tarazona already sign in the Councils of Toledo, next to the Metropolitans. See also MENDOZA, Pedro (2015): ¿Por qué pasamos de la iglesia? (Why do we go from church?)  http://www.bubok.es/libros/242100/Por-que-pasamos-de-la-iglesia

 

There is in this book data of interest on the diocesan youth of 17 to 30 years, referred to the year 1983, seven years later. This study was based on a diocesan survey answered by 1,686 young men and women (44% boys and 56% girls). The survey was conducted by Juan-Pablo Forcén and me. We both were in 1983 the diocesan Delegates of Youth Ministry.

 

A Permanent Commission of eight other priests collaborated with us: Pastoral Vicariate (RAÚL Romero), Secular Apostolate (FELIX Uriel), Catechesis (PACO Sánchez and VICENTE Bonilla), Rural Movement (CECILIO Berges), Junior Movement (PASCUAL Tornos), Major Seminary (FLORENTINO Nonay) and Minor Seminary (TOMÁS López). There is a basic synthesis of this book on:

http://www.pedromendoza.com/publicaciones/libros/1986-y-2015-por-qu%C3%A9-pasamos-de-la-iglesia/

 

 

 

                                                    “DID YOU KNOW THAT…

  • Neither the bishop,
  • Neither the bishop's private secretary,
  • Neither the vicar general,
  • Neither the chancellor-secretary,
  • Neither the visitator of religious,
  • Neither the provisor general,
  • Neither the attorney general and defender of the bond,
  • Neither the officer of the curia,
  • Neither the director of the Official Bulletin,
  • Neither the diocesan archivist,
  • Neither the assistant archivist,
  • Neither the vicar of pastoral,
  • Nor 75% of the commission of economy,
  • Neither the person in charge of the diocesan heritage,
  • Neither the head of temples and parish houses,
  • Neither 100% of the historical archive,
  • Neither the person responsible for liturgy,
  • Neither the head of sacred art

                                           …WERE BORN IN ARAGON?

 

 

 

 

But this was not the biggest problem, but the prospective (null) and the professional distribution (outdated, anachronistic). The diocese —like the official church— had no more horizon or more historical project than the liturgical calendar. And I speak in the past, because I still do not say anything about the 21st century. Young priests were assigned in smaller towns, with less people and older. And old priests (by “scale”) were assigned in the towns with more people and younger.

 

This criterion would have been acceptable with a type of connected ministry. But parishes were often “owned”, that is, as a private jurisdiction. There was no exchange of parish priests or work in teams or zones, despite the current legal figure of the archpriesthood. In short, it was badly seen that a priest had any type of pastoral activity with people outside his assigned parish, because it seemed as “interference” in the other.

 

Aware of this situation, we were able to write, print and send the booklet titled “A propósito de una Estadística” (About a statistic) to all the priests of the diocese, bishop and charges included.

 

Among the priests recipients, some suggested that we would have paid a sociologist with “public money” from our parishes (!)...But it was not like that. Our rural parishes (between 100 and 700 inhabitants) did not give so much money. And, on the other hand, a professional sociologist was not necessary to relate data that spoke for themselves.

 

The bishop, Francisco Álvarez, was himself forced to meet with the group that wrote the booklet, nine diocesan priests. He had been in Tarazona since June 1973. And from July 1975, he was also Administrator of Calahorra-Logroño. The Vatican had Tarazona as a “training diocese” for newly created bishops. From January 1966, Tarazona spent long periods without a bishop and released a new one every two or three years.

 

Thanks to the Vatican, we all got used to living without a bishop: we each did what we thought fit. Stop. In that meeting with the group of nine, we told our Bishop Alvarez that he was not going to fix the diocese either, but that it was convenient for us all to have written the contradictions we were in, in case something could ever be solved. From booklet “A propósito de una estadística” (About a statistic) is this following adapted fragment that I wrote:

 

 

February 17, 1976

 

PROBABLE DIFFERENCES between

the parish priests who MOVE

and those who do NOT MOVE

 

 

YES move

 

 

do NOT move

 

Lower depth in dealing with people, more difficulties.

 

 

Greater depth in the treatment. People are better known.

 

“You are always

on the road”

“We don’t see

your hide nor hair”

 

 

 

More rewarding relationship.

More mutual trust.

 

Warnings in the villages where you do not reside: “You ignore us”.

 

 

Less suspicions, because the priest is closer and more visible

 

 

 

As in small towns there is no automatic telephone, many commissions have to be given personally, moving. It also

economically gets worse.

 

 

There is more time

to prepare meetings, to read or study, to visit the sick, to go to the bar

or to walk. It also

economically gets better.

 

 

More missionary conception of the Church. More overview.

 

 

More conservative conception. Less overwiew: “My people”.

 

 

More capacity for improvisation and less pampering to the formal details in decoration

or in liturgy.

 

 

More concerned with form than substance.

 

More attention to the Archive.

 

 

Peoples small and dispersed.

Elderly population.

 

Less vitality, less cohesion.

Less services, less future.

 

 

Large and compact towns.

More balanced population.

 

More vitality,

more cohesion.

More services, more future.

 

 

The work done is less visible and

You get tired more.

 

 

The work done is more visible and

with less effort.

 

 

 

Feelings of the priests

who MOVE

 

 

Feelings of the priests

who do NOT MOVE

 

 

 

A greater number

of masses

 

Less devotion. The more processions, the less sense. Greater flexibility compared to the Instructions in the Liturgy.

 

 

More rejection of the regime of

Christianity, directly proportional to the number of towns or religious practices presided over.

 

 

Less affective dependency of the Vatican model of Church.

 

 

A less number

of masses

 

Greater devotion and less freedom with respect to

Liturgical Instructions. Greater slowness and calmness.

 

 

 

 

Greater identification with the Pastoral Ministry of Christianity.

 

Less creativity and less sense of adaptation.

 

 

 

 

More affective dependence of the Vatican model of Church.

 

 

 

  • “What rises to the surface is what weighs less”. March 12, 1976.

 

  • “Paloma and Begoña”. [1]  May 28, 1976.

 

  • “A cross and an idea. We do not have any more”. May 28, 1976.

 

  • “Madrid, Linares, Jaén, Córdoba, Sevilla, Villafranca, Mérida, Guadalupe, Madrid. What a Seat 600 car can handle”… May 30, 1976.

 

 

 

[1] They were two girls, who studied at a school in Madrid. I went to give some talks. And in the end, they had a detail with me: a medal of 27x19 mm, where they printed “PEDRO APÓSTOL, CON CARIÑO” (Pedro-apostle, with love). I no longer saw them (like so many well-known people), but the medallion has always come with me and I still keep it.

 

1976 July:  Last photo together

 

  • “Paris. Alliance Française, final exam: “Are you going to Burundi? How brave!”  [1]  August 16, 1976.

 

 

 

[1] According to the wise orientations of our French teacher, in a test of spoken language, it is better that the student take the initiative, for to be questioned by the Court is very dangerous. According to her, it is necessary to impress or distract the Tribunal, which in general is boring. And when the Court realizes, time has passed. Slogan that the teacher gave us: to prepare an area of meanings and take the initiative.

 

I tried and it seemed to work: “And what do you study French for?” —they asked me, and I said— “Because in two weeks I'm going to be a missionary in Burundi”. They stood for a few seconds looking at me without speaking and one of them said: “Quel courage!” From here, the least interest was my level of French...

 

1976 August:  Farewell in Cetina

 

5. Missionary in Burundi

Years 1976 to 1980

 

 

 

 

  • TRAVEL TO BURUNDI:

Calatayud, Madrid, Brussels.

 

My mother sobs when she kisses me, very discreetly. It reaches my soul.

—Do not worry —I say quietly to her.

My father walks along the Seat 600 car trying to contain the emotion.

—I'll write you soon —I remind him, to say something.

 

My brother Juan, 26 years old, understands the situation. Jesus, 14, does something less, although he is nobody’s fool. I whistle on the way out, although it's five in the morning. For a moment, I realize that not only I go to Burundi and I have a doubt of urgency: do I have the right to take me there to those who do not know geography, like my parents? I have neglected and I almost cried, but I restrain myself. I've never cried when I left home. A minute has passed. None of the three brothers we have spoken a word in the car. I break a dangerous silence:

—What time do you have? —as if I cared.

 

At the station, and everyone more serene, my brother Juan tells me: “how they stayed, huh?” RENFE, as always, was collaborating: two hours later! “Papá, tren paciencia!”. [1] In short, two hours of guitar, what could you do! The three of us play something; I, the less.

 

In Madrid-Barajas, there are Ramoni Iríbar, Edurne and his brother. Santos and Alfredo, my companions of Vera, have also come. My brothers Juan and Jesus do not lose detail, they are the only ones in the family at the airport. And by the way, they will have to wait. Inside already the small airplane, the passengers we heard:

 

—They tell us from the control tower that we can not leave for two and a half hours... You know that this is not Sabena's thing, but of the Spanish controllers, who already carry a week on strike.

 

A Belgian at my side tries to unburden oneself in French, as if accusing me if I am Spanish: “This is the land of delays!”… The Spaniards on the plane have started speaking in English. And I can stand the look of this Belgian, who will then be very nice and even give me his address in Brussels. This is the first time I've boarded a plane. And I lose the Brussels-Bujumbura correspondence, which was my main flight. We started well… August 30, 1976.

 

 

  • TRAVEL TO BURUNDI:

Brussels, Kinshasa, Bujumbura.

 

There was a very good service at Novotel, in every way. I get up late and, still half asleep, I see a very close airplane flying by my window. But I quickly realize that I do not hear the plane, I should hear, it flies by the side: “Something has happened to me in my ears, perhaps I have remained deaf on this trip, by pressure or for whatever reason”... I can open the double window and of course I can hear the plane, I am not deaf. Conclusion: “This is realy a good soundproofing, and not that of Torrejón”. A hotel at the airport itself and you do not hear the planes, as it should be.

 

As I have not lost anything in Brussels-city, I stay at the hotel to write a letter-protest to IBERIA, whose employees have told me in Madrid at all times that my flight from SABENA Madrid-Brussels was not affected by the strike. I go to the airport, there is no other Brussels-Burundi flight within three days (which I feared). So I risk another unforeseen combination leaving this very night: Brussels-Kinshasa-Bujumbura. It is scheduled to leave at 9 pm, but a little earlier they will give me another scare for the airport speakers:

 

—Monsieur Mendoza, on vous prie de vous presenter au bureau d'information (bis). [2]

—What happens now? —I ask adventurer.

—“You have confirmed the Kinshasa-Bujumbura flight”.

 

I thank her and I remain pensive, astonished: “Of course, this is Europe”.

 

Until twelve, they have us entertained. We sleep until four in the morning and they give us breakfast at that time, we can see Kinshasa:

—The outside temperature is 19 degrees Celsius. We wish you had a good trip. Merci.

 

I am in the heart of Africa. My guitar and I go to customs. I tell them that I'm passing through and I take care of the suitcase, which has many suitors.

 

—Is that the Bujumbura plane? Will you notify us? —I ask half a dozen times to half a dozen employees (everyone who passes “loads it”). A Brit goes to Bujumbura as well. He does not lose his eye on the plane, and he has corroborated me: “Ici, on sait jamais”. [3]

 

We're already on the plane. From the window, I see a young lady check the boarding passes. She looks cultured and determined, she is very pretty. And I make the first metaphysical conclusion: “Although it was only to verify this, it is worth this trip”… It is nice to cross a barrier of clouds, mountains of cotton next to you. By nine o'clock in the morning, you can descry Burundi, the country of a thousand hills, whose borders are heart-shaped. Although I try to avoid it, the worm of the unknown it moves through my body. I see cabins, roads and a car on a paved road.

 

 

 

The Air-Zaïre plane, about 70 passengers, goes to take track. When leaving, a hundred people in the central building. Not a single white, what I expected! They give me a paper that I fill out fast, I think I should put “tourist”. I hold well my suitcase and a black guy offers me a taxi. I, who do not trust my shadow anymore, I say to him:

 

—And where is the taxi?

—“Come and see”.

I leave and it seems true, there is no one around.

How many kilometers are there to Bujumbura? —I ask.

Thirteen —he says sure. I accept and I ride.

Do you know where the White Fathers live? —I auscultate him in a vital information for me.

By chance, in Spain I thought to ask it before: “And if there are not the missionaries at the airport, where can I go?” Indeed, they were not. But the taxi driver knows everything:

—Yes, yes, it's easy. They have two houses, at least —he reassures me.

 

The entry into Bujumbura is a surprise to me, as I have come with many prejudices and little information. The people, although barefoot, are dressed. There are houses like in Europe. Some streets are paved; you see cars and vans Wolkswagen, Peugeot, Toyota. I see bikes and a Renault garage. This is less rare than I thought. They also go some whites on the street as if nothing happened.

 

 

 

[1] RENFE: Red Nacional de Ferrocarriles Españoles (National Network of Spanish Railways). “Papá, tren paciencia!” —Dad, train patience! — it was a mockery of the publicity of the Renfe of then, similar to the real Spanish ten paciencia” (Be patient) —Footnote for the English edition.

 

[2] “Mr Mendoza, please report to the Information Office”.

 

[3] “Here you never know”…

 

1976 Sept 1:  Burundi is here

 

Paul, a Belgian priest, gives me a beer.

 

Is this your first time? —he guesses.

—Should be noted, right? —I answer resignedly but surely.

 

He transports me to PAR. The receptionist is also called Paul, but he's Dutch, and I ask him:

 

—What does PAR mean?

—“Procure d'Accueil Religieux” —he answers me satisfied.  [1]

 

I see blond ladies, probably Belgians, who later turn out to be from Asturias. Then comes Roberto and everything is normalizing. Yesterday nobody knew at this airport that this traveler did not ride in Brussels. Nobody was waiting for me from Zaire. No one knew that there was a strike in Spain, like that Spaniard at Kinshasa waiting for another flight from Madrid.

 

In the afternoon, miracle, I was able to talk to Calatayud. It sounds very bad, but I think they have understood that “I'm already here”. The Burundian operator has told me, all certain, that it is badly heard “because of the European lines, which are deficient”. At night, a dozen Spaniards go to a bar. Ascension leaves tomorrow, she has not been to Spain for three years. September 01, 1976.

 

  • “We have already arrived in Nyangwa, my final destination. We visit a “rugo” [house] and drink banana beer with straw. I feel uncomfortable by the washbasin, but I copied what my colleagues did”. September 02, 1976.

 

  • “One thing is not well known until one knows how to express”. October 26, 1976.

 

  • “Language School in Muyange. Unfortunately, most people use more energy in submitting to an inherited system than in transforming it. That is why, in some things, the planet earth is disgusting”. December 03, 1976.

 

 

 

[1] Place of Welcome for Religious.

 

 

ORIGINAL

Translation

 

Salmo 1976 --canción

¿Por qué

 

 

el bien y el mal viven

siempre en la misma casa?

 

 

hablamos tantos idiomas

si sólo tenemos

una  lengua?

 

 

tomar el planeta en serio

si nosotros no lo movemos?

 

 

somos actores de la historia

si no sabemos

cómo acaba?

 

 

la vida es lucha

si no hay vencedores

ni vencidos?

 

 

nos damos cuenta

de que sufrimos?

 

 

Psalm 1976 —song

Why?

 

 

Do good and evil always

live in the same house?

 

 

We speak so many languages if we only

have one tongue?

 

 

Take the planet seriously

 since we do not move it?

 

 

Are we actors in history

Without knowing

how it ends?

 

 

Is life a struggle

without winners

or losers?

 

 

We realize

that we suffer?

 

 

 

¿Por qué

 

no nos piden permiso

ni para nacer

ni para morir?

 

 

es tan poco lo que sabemos y tanto

lo que ignoramos?

 

 

hay que morir

para saber algo de la vida?

 

 

me atrevo, Señor, a preguntarte si fue posible otro mundo?

 

 

no tengo el consuelo de creer que quizá esté loco?

 

 

¿hay tantos hombres

  que dudan como yo?

 

 

 

Si no es pecado dudar,

si no es pecado cantar,

 

 

 

te ofrecemos, Dios de luz,

nuestra triste oscuridad”.

 

 

15-diciembre-1976.

 

 

 

Why?

 

Do not they ask us permission to be born

or to die?

 

 

Is so little that we know

and so much

that we ignore?

 

 

You have to die

to know something of life?

 

 

I dare, Lord, to ask you

If another world

was possible?

 

 

I do not have the comfort of believing that I may be razy?

 

 

Are there as many

doubters as I do?

 

 

 

If it is not sin to doubt,

If it is not sin to sing,

 

 

 

We offer you, God of light,

Our sad darkness.

 

 

December 15, 1976.

 

 

 

 

Year 1977, news

CZECHOSLOVAKIA, January 07: Charter of 77. They request the Government to respect human rights. Many signatories have been arrested.

SPAIN, January 24: Three ultra-right extremists murder five labor lawyers in Madrid and injure four others. Atocha Street, 55.

SPAIN, April 09: On “Saturday of glory”, the eve of the resurrection, the Spanish communist party is legalized.

SPAIN, June 15: After 41 years, the Spanish vote again to their representatives. It has taken so long to get here. 35% of the votes were for UCD, 29% for PSOE, 24% for PCE, 8% for AP. Now, we have to make a new constitution.

SPAIN, July 12: The peseta, devalued by 20%.

FEDERAL GERMANY, August 4: Ernst Bloch died in Tübingen.

UNITED STATES, November 14: Santiago Carrillo has been invited by several universities. Since World War II, it is the first time a non-ruling Communist leader has entered the country.

SWEDEN, December 10: Vicente Aleixandre, Literature Nobel.

ARGENTINA, December 12: President Videla speaks of the missing in a press conference with Japanese journalists.

SWITZERLAND, December 26: Charles Chaplin has died at age 88.

1977 January:  Guitar is called “igitari”

“The seed makes no noise when it grows” [1]

The period that began now was especially intense, since it included a few years in Burundi under severe psychological conditions, a sudden departure by government expulsion, an early and undesired transition to Europe, accompanied by the stigma of “suspects” for a certain part of the clergy of Tarazona for having “closed” —according to them— a mission in Africa that already began to idealize against our warnings.

 

 

 

[1] This phrase told us the Aragonese Victorio Oliver, who came to visit NYANGWA (Burundi) in 1977, being our bishop of Tarazona from December 1976 to May 1981.

 

1977 January:  With President Bagaza in Ntita

 

When Roberto and I responded to those same “critics” that the two of us had not closed anything and that anyone could go there to supply us, they did not feel alluded. In addition, the trigger for our personalized expulsion was an open letter that we addressed to Pope John Paul II in February 1980 —still more bizarre yet— where we criticized the recent disavowal of Hans Küng and other setbacks of the Vatican.

 

In the South, or “mission lands”, the same synthesis exists as in the North of civilization: there are missionaries who are very hardy and conservative both, along with other equally committed missionaries, who continually improve their own emancipatory work. It was for me another discovery: one can be a “deviant” martyr. The respectable commitment to give one's life for one, it does not always mean getting it right in that task. In a word, you can be “holy and silly at the same time”.

 

I will avoid all possible explanations, almost everything is in the very texts that I wrote or filed. They always appear with date, as it corresponds to the nature of this book. These are historical facts that I do not want to throw away, to complement other more or less exotic versions of the emancipatory task.

 

If the facts and experiences that come out in this book are transcendent or not, that is something that is not for me to sentence. But it is my duty to do what is possible so that they will not be engulfed by collective historical forgetfulness or the growing and diluent giga-information.

 

  • “Es-ce que vous vous souviendrez de moi?” [1] —Emma, from Ibuye. January 29, 1977.

 

  • “Those who tell the story are the winners. Vae victis!” [2] February 08, 1977.

 

  • “In a society of conformists, nonconformists are heretics”. February 08, 1977.

 

  • “Religions, thank God, are suffering the greatest crisis in history, the transition from slavery to freedom, from mystery to analysis, from infantilism to maturity. They are the institutions that have had the most influence on humanity. And unfortunately against their founders, always focused on the common good, the religious domes have fostered a rickety and individualistic morality. That is why in the face of today's reality they are so incapable of planetary approaches”. February 12, 1977.

 

  • “Except for minorities who are regaining the liberating meaning of the gospel, the churches are still more alienating than anything else. The Catholic Church is one of the great institutions less prepared for democracy”. February 12, 1977.

 

  • “When I see a group of priests and nuns of various nationalities with so little critical capacity, I wonder what the liberation we preach is”. February 15, 1977.

 

  • “In the third world we need more pedagogues than technicians”. February 20, 1977.

 

  • “If God did not become man, God has no reason to be”. April 08, 1977.

 

 

 

[1] “Will you remember me?” —the Burundian Emma in Ibuye told me in French. I remembered her and kept her name, but I did not see her anymore.

 

[2] “Woe to the defeated!” —Latin expression.

 

 

ORIGINAL

Translation

 

TODAVÍA —canción

 

 

 

Todavía los cañones

no han borrado

el azul del cielo.

 

 

 

Todavía sigue en el diccionario

la palabra amor.

 

 

 

Todavía no ha caído

la tercera bomba atómica.

 

 

 

Todavía hay parejas

por las calles.

Todavía no ha pasado nada.

 

 

 

Todavía millones de pobres

mueren sin protestar.

 

 

 

Todavía los pobres

no han odiado a los ricos.

 

 

 

Todavía creemos

que los partidos no son

un fin en sí mismos.

 

 

 

Todavía creemos en

una democracia planetaria.

 

 

 

Todavía callan las madres,

todavía sonríen los niños.

 

          

Todavía, todavía…

 

 

Todavía creemos que

las fronteras caerán.

 

 

 

Todavía no hemos olvidado que

tenemos una sola lengua.

 

 

 

Todavía no nos da vergüenza

formar parte de esta especie.

 

 

 

Todavía soñamos

con un planeta nuevo.

 

 

 

Todavía cantamos a la paz,

todavía cantamos a la paz”.

 

 

          10 julio 1977

 

STILL song

 

 

 

Still the canyons

Have not erased

the blue of the sky.

 

 

 

It still follows in the dictionary

The word love,

 

 

 

Has not yet fallen

The third atomic bomb.

 

 

 

There are still couples

on the streets.

Nothing has happened yet.

 

 

 

Still millions of poor

Die without protest.

 

 

 

The poor

Have not yet hated the rich.

 

 

 

We still believe

that the parties they are not

an end in themselves.

 

 

 

We still believe in

a planetary democracy.

 

 

 

The mothers are still silent,

The children still smile.

 

 

Still, still…

 

 

We still believe that

Borders will fall.

 

 

 

We have not yet forgotten that

We have only one tongue.

 

 

 

We are still not ashamed

Of being part of this species.

 

 

 

We still dream

Of a new planet.

 

 

 

We still sing to peace,

We still sing to peace.

 

 

July 10, 1977

 

 

 

  • “This life is too sad not to think of another”. August 20, 1977.

1977, Nyangwa:  This child looks at his mother

 

  • “My God, with the excuse that you know, I have begun to think about my life. I've had no perspective for a long time. When I got priest, I thought this would bring me closer to you, that our life would be that of two lovers walking through life. Time has taught me that the much vaunted 'priestly character' had no immunity in any aspect of life. I do not know who would be the clever one who invented it. He might do so with good will, and that saves him from ethics, but not from science. I have verified that the grace of state does not exist and that no sacrament immunizes anything.

 

“The 'spiritual fathers' we had, were unconscious victims of an archaic and reactionary organization, the Church. There were lack of analysis and maturity, children of good will. No one spoke to me with adult objectivity of what it was to be a priest. It is another of the things we have had to learn alone. And then the bishops come talking about 'obedience to the Church'... ‘The day they put that cap on their head, that's like the candle-snuffer’ —I learned from an Aragonese farmer.

 

“How many times have I repeated the cry of that companion of profession twenty plus centuries ago: ‘You deceived me, Lord, and I let myself be deceived’ [1]... I have been in Africa for a year and almost five years I am a priest. I still believe that you exist and I still hope for a new day. But this conviction pales every day in a nebula, is not the original stimulus of five yaers ago. That is why I want, Lord, to have a dialogue between us two again. I have the impression of attending a dry and bitter monologue. What have I done for you to behave like this? Have I gone so far from you?

 

“Tell me what I can do. Damn profession, I wish I had been a plumber or bus collector, some place where I thought of other things. They told me there were millions of Christians and then it was rare to find one. We were sent to say masses and no one knew you. We have encountered a phantom Church, the Church that never existed, ‘the gospel not yet released’, as John XXIII said.

 

“God, mysterious and attractive, we had to get afloat amid so much shit and here we are, waiting for you to make us presentable to ourselves; take away all the complexes that have rained us, the contradictions in this profession, the constant tension of belonging (I do not know for how long) to an anachronistic institution and largely traitorous to the Good News.

 

“Waiting you make us presentable to others, not to infect the dust of the road, to keep the head in place, to be a sign of something, to be not just another number on the planet. Only you can do that. This I know. No analysis or method can deplete my understanding of myself and cause a reconversion like the one I want. There are so many data that escape me!

 

“I know very well that only you can do what we call 'miracles'. To be honest with you, I still believe in miracles. And I know that when you have desired, you have done them, with me and with others. For me, the miracle is to have an illusion to live again, to be young again at age 29, to know that I am not making a fool of myself for not having a female partner in my bed; to realize that I am not a deadpoint in human history; again believe that here also in Burundi there is a place for me.

 

“Two years ago, I sat down to write similar things and the miracle occurred. Now, 6,000 kilometers from there and in similar circumstances, I ask you the same, Lord. Surely for you it is not a miracle, even if it is for me”. Ndava, August 25, 1977.

 

  • “Lord, with the strength that I expect of you, today I have to tell you that I am willing to continue living. Not knowing how or where you take me, I want to keep getting up from the bed. I do not know how this will be done, but I want to continue inventing with you how to live each day.

 

“We will again believe that nothing is absurd. The trees, the pain, the silences, the sweat, the anger and the nerves, tiredness and fatigue, the frustration, the void... Everything will come back to form, to have weight in the balance of your coming, the one we wait at all hours and that we can not pull out of our head, the one we dream at night when the battery dies, and in the morning, when the light enters aggressively through the window.

 

“I do not know what can be done in this country. A year after arriving here, I do not know what my position in this world is. But when you have brought me, it will be for something. Deep down, I think you've never deceived me. That's why I still believe there is a way. It is difficult life that of the road. We are pilgrims of the night preaching the day; prisoners of life preaching freedom; crazy, humans without a people, without a place, homeless. We are humans without borders, universal and marginalized, with no other body to repose our heads. Preaching and begging love; receiving vested interests as entire reward, or urgent friends. We became handled by the Powers. Used”. Ndava, August 26, 1977.

 

  • “Lord, I am more serene today. My retirement comes to an end. For the pleasure of being with you, it would remain so for many more days. We have only begun a dialogue that could be eternal. My wish is not to be interrupted. I declare myself defeated; I do not know why we have so strong enemies of what is most intimate in us. I do not know why they have so much power in front of you. Sometimes I think that you can not against them and I would fight with you against those who make impossible love for us.

 

“I hope to submit to reality: it is another way to overcome it. After these days of therapy, I think it's possible to be a little less unhappy, a little happier. It may be possible to start over. Honey, is there any way out? Into your hands I commend my life”. Ndava, August 27, 1977.

 

 

[1] Jeremiah 20: 7.

 

 

  • “Today I came to Burundi a year ago”. Nyangwa, September 01, 1977.

 

  • “The seed makes no noise when it grows up” —Victorio Oliver, bishop of Tarazona, in Nyangwa. September 01, 1977.

______________________________________________________________

 

  • “Payment of wages in Rushanga”

 

Before paying the workers, being present the Chief of Zone and several curious, we have said the following (Germain Bancako translated):

 

The official information on the new salaries we received just three days ago. We have had to readjust not only yours, but the whole mission: cooks, secretaries, farmers... We are not obliged to inform you of this. It is the State of Burundi that should inform you. And it is you who must worry about knowing your rights.

 

However, the missionaries are here to serve you in what we can and not to deceive you. If we are ever wrong, it is never intended to explode, for we have no treasure to hide or something to keep. [1]

 

The money that you are going to receive does not come from the State of Burundi, it comes from Spain. And a little, it is from Germany. We do not have any factory to make money. We have been given by the farmers of our hills. Although they have machines, they also work with the hoe, and they sweat like you and they get cold many times.

 

They do not know you at all, but they want to help you. We are here on behalf of them. Compared to you, they are rich. But in Spain they are poor, poorer than many other Spaniards. With this money sent to us, you have work and we are happy about it. Since we are in Burundi, we pay you according to your law, which is as follows:

 

FOR THE NORMAL WORKERS,

The thing has not changed at all. That is, 50 francs Burundi [FBu later] in the interior, 60 in Gitega and 80 in Bujumbura. That is, as we already paid you. Only the family allowance has changed, which is now 300 FBu for the woman and 150 FBu for each child (applause). In spite of this, we have thought to pay you a little more than what the law says. Instead of 50 FBu, you will receive 60 F per day (applause). And this, with retroactive effect, that is to say, from the one of July. So now you will receive the August pay at 60 FBu per day and another 10 FBu more for each day of the month of July, as we promised you last month. Enter the Independence Day and the next (applause).

 

FOR MASONS,

There are several categories. The first, which is yours, goes from 50 to 110 FBu, depending on it is the Interior, Gitega or Bujumbura. After consulting, we have decided to increase to 90 FBu per day to all masons. In addition, we consider the foremen of the carpenters and the first three skilled of the masons to be of another category. Although none of them is completely fixed, the quality of their work in the mission is acceptable. So Nakumuryango, Barampangaje and Nyandwi will receive 110 FBu per day. Finally, the construction boss, Venansi Musega, will receive 115 FBu per day (applause).

 

All these wages are since July 1. And also, it is the compensation for family as the rest of the workers. If anyone disagrees or has something to say, he can express it to his respective representative and voted for you: Kaziri Karoli, for the workers, or Musega Venansi, for the masons. He will tell us and we will give him an answer. Likewise, if someone of you does not trust what we say, and wants to collect later the salary (as a few you did last month), you can do it too (laughs).

 

We want to conclude by saying that the mission is not a profitable enterprise, but a way of helping you and your country in the best way we know. Now, you check the money in the envelopes, without haste, without nerves. To those who have advance loans we have already discounted them. The debts this month, among all, total 9,000 francs. Thank you. Nta kindi. Tugire amahoro. [2] (Applause).

 

Venansi Musega spoke afterwards:

 

—“We thank you for everything you do. We already know that you have come to help us and that this is ours. Do not worry; we will take care of this construction as our own. After talking several times, we have seen that you have done everything possible. Now we charge the same as those of Kibumbu. We are happy”.

 

Nakumuryango, the carpenter, also spoke. He said he was not happy with his salary, which he should charge as Musega; That Musega was the head of the low construction and he, chief of the high construction (wooden beams, etc.).

 

Then Pedro, the missionary director of the work, who had just communicated all the previous information, added something like this: “We just talked that this is not the time to say that. Besides, you know, Nakumuryango, we have spoken to you before the works begin. On the other hand, the missionaries we do not want wages to serve as a division between you, but a way to bring happiness to your families” (applause).

 

Nakumuryango was still discontented and the thing lasted a dangerous minute. The missionary Roberto said to Pedro in Spanish: “Corta, que de aquí no salimos” (Cut, that from here we do not leave). And Pedro brought closer the shoe box where the envelopes of the dispute were. But at that moment, the Zone Chief also wanted to speak to the crowd, about 70 people among workers and curious:

 

—“We thank the missionaries for everything they do. I think this is not the time to talk about wages here, Nakumuryango. In the name of the area of Bisoro, we thank you and we will try to collaborate with the mission in what we can. Tugire amahoro” (Applause).

 

On the way back, Venansi Musega told Germain Bancako: “I have been here for many years and this is getting better” (Germain translated motu proprio). September 01, 1977.

______________________________________________________________

 

  • “Nights of lead under the stars and a solid silence shouting: get up and walk!” September 02, 1977.

 

  • “Here everything is already seen. I could die now”. October 27, 1977.

 

  • “Cold tears. They leave tired and moist eye bags. They know the way”. November 14, 1977.

 

 

 

[1] It was taken from Report of Activities in the NYANGWA Mission. Germain BANCAKO was the head of the Nyangwa catechists. He took courses on Theology and Catechesis in Butare (Rwanda). He was married and the most authoritative person in the parish, after the missionaries. During the genocide of 1972, Germain (who was Tutsi) played his life by protecting and hiding in his own house Pío (Hutu), administrative secretary of Nyangwa during our stay.

 

[2] “Nta kindi. Tugire amahoro”. —Typical expression of the time in kirundi: Nothing else. Let's build peace”.

 

 

ORIGINAL

Translation

 

YO SOLO SOY UN HOMBRE

—canción

 

 

Compañeros que soñáis

siempre una primavera,

si no soñamos juntos,

nos pondrán una barrera.

 

 

Compañeros que saltáis

por encima de fronteras,

si no saltamos juntos,

nos echarán afuera.

 

 

Yo solo soy un hombre,

que llora cantando con vosotros,

no tengo más que mi voz

para dejar oír mi canción.

 

 

Si juntos no inventamos la paz,

si unidos no creamos horizontes,

no veremos nunca el mar,

siempre estarán ahí los montes.

 

 

Yo solo soy un hombre,

que llora cantando con vosotros,

no tengo más que mi voz

para dejar oír mi canción.

 

 

19 noviembre, 1977.

 

 

I AM JUST A MAN

song

 

 

Fellow dreamers

Always a spring,

If we do not dream together,

They will set us a barrier.

 

 

Comrades that jump

Above borders,

If we do not jump together,

They will throw us out.

 

 

I'm just a man,

Who weeps singing with you,

I only have my voice

To let my song be heard.

 

 

If together we do not invent peace,

If united we do not create horizons, we will never see the sea,

the mountains will always be there.

 

 

I'm just a man,

Who weeps singing with you,

I only have my voice

To let my song be heard.

 

 

November 19, 1977.

 

 

 

 

  • “In a few years, I have discovered many things about the bad organization of the planet. Two things can happen to me, or to die soon (that would be the most comfortable thing) or to give the battle by loss. In both cases, I lose my identity. There is only another way: to suffer a lot”. November 29, 1977.

 

  • “The shit of many centuries has fallen on our backs”. November 30, 1977.

 

 

ORIGINAL

Translation

 

ENTRE TRAGOS DE VINO

 —canción

 

 

Cuando era niño,

estaba yo muy seguro: Cetina es

el mejor pueblo del mundo.

 

 

 

Cuando era un chaval,

la cosa ya no era igual:

 

 

 

los músicos y los títeres

que venían a divertimos,

eran siempre los mismos

que los del pueblo vecino.

 

 

 

Me dieron geografía de España,

y como el maistro era

un tal Raimundo,

lo cosa no podía estar más clara:

¿español? ¡cosa seria en el mundo!

 

 

 

Con los años y el autostop,

un poco de decisión

y otro poco de aventura,

me eché la mochila al hombro,

y además de estudiar pa cura,

vi que en Londres, París, Bruselas,

si hablaban de democracia,

no a todos hacía gracia.

 

 

 

La cosa no podía estar más clara:

¿democracia?

¡cosa seria en España!

 

 

 

Cuando me fui pa Burundi,

pronto tuve otra sorpresa:

los hombres eran clavaos

a los que dejé en mi sierra.

El Somontano pasó el testigo

cuando vine yo a esta tierra.

 

 

 

Está el tonto y el gracioso,

y el que se hace el interesante,

qu'es un echao p'adelante,

con un papel en la mano,

pa meter miedo a Mengano,

como los secretarios de antes.

 

 

 

Todo esto yo aprendí

dentro y fuera de Aragón.

No pensaba que en el mundo,

a pesar de don Raimundo,

los hombres fueran iguales.

 

 

 

Por la tele siempre había,

en programas especiales,

aquellas curiosidades

de tierras nauseabundas.

 

 

Pero las cosas profundas,

las que todo el mundo sabe,

esas siempre salían

envueltas en falsedades.

 

 

 

Ahora que ya lo he visto,

no quiero pasar por listo,

se las cuento a mis hermanos

por si les vale de algo,

se las paso a mis amigos

entre tragos de vino”.

 

10 diciembre, 1977

 

 

BETWEEN WINE DRINKS

song

 

 

When I was a child,

I was very sure: Cetina is

the best town in the world.

 

 

 

When I was a young man,

the thing was not the same:

 

 

 

The musicians and the puppets

who came to have fun,

Were always the same

As those of the neighboring village.

 

 

 

I was given geography of Spain,

and as the master was

a certain Raimundo,

The thing could not be clearer:

Spanish? Serious thing in the world!

 

 

 

With the years and the hitchhiking,

A little decision and

another bit of adventure,

I threw the backpack,

and besides studying for priest,

I saw that in London, Paris, Brussels,

If they spoke of democracy,

Not everyone was amused.

 

 

 

The thing could not be clearer:

Democracy?

A serious thing in Spain!

 

 

 

When I left for Burundi,

I soon had another surprise:

The men were identical

To the ones I left on my mountain.

The Somontano passed the witness

When I came to this earth.

 

 

 

There is the fool and the funny,

And the one who becomes interesting,

Who is a smug man,

With a paper in the hand,

To scare Anyone who allows it,

As the secretaries of other ages.

 

 

 

All this I learned

Inside and outside Aragon.

I did not think that in the world,

In spite of Don Raimundo,

The men were the same.

 

 

 

On the TV there was always,

In special programs,

Those curiosities

Of nauseating lands.

 

 

But the deep things,

The ones that everyone knows,

Those always came out

Wrapped in falsehoods.

 

 

 

Now that I have seen it,

I do not want to be a know it all,

I tell my brothers

In case it serves them,

I pass it on to my friends

Between drinks of wine”

 

December 10, 1977

 

 

 

  • “At age 29, unemployed and without profession!” December 23, 1977.

 

Year 1978, news

 

SPAIN, January 19: Adultery and cohabitation, decriminalized.

ITALY, May 09: The corpse of Aldo Moro has been found in Rome.

SPAIN, July 15: The nudist reserves begin to bloom.

VATICAN, August 06: Paul VI died at age 81.

VATICAN, September 28: John Paul I's sudden death on the 33rd day of his pontificate. There are many speculations on the cause.

VATICAN, October 22: A Polish, elected Pope. He will be John Paul II.

SPAIN, November 10: The age of majority, reduced to 18 years.

UNITED STATES, November 18: More than 900 members of the North American sect “Temple of the People” commit suicide in the South American jungle of Guyana. Others have been killed. There is global outrage.

SPAIN, December 06: Referendum on the new Constitution. 88% of voters are in favor. There has been a 33% abstention.

IRAN, December 11: Some two million people are demanding the arrival of Khomeini and the death of the Shah. The army opened fire on the crowd, causing dozens of dead in Tehran.

 

“The poor understand only their misfortunes”

This phrase was told to me in French by a Nyangwa student, as it appears a little later. Not only the poor, but many human beings we ignore the misfortunes of others until they occur to us. The first moment in Burundi (1976) was exotic and even nice. The second moment (1977) was exciting and creative, but more difficult. The third moment (1978) begins to be unbearable and the depression comes.

 

One day I told my fellow missionaries:

“I think I was mistaken when I came to Burundi”.

But soon they got me out of my doubts:

“That has happened to us all, at two or three years we are overwhelmed and we wish we had not come. Here we are marginalized, not the Burundians, who live in their natural environment”.

 

This synthesis I also heard from other missionaries who had been there for over 15 years. The year 1978 was for me of deep reflection.

 

  • “Glory is not in the admired, but in the admirer”. January 13, 1978.

 

  • “How is the world going, what will have happened today, how many humans will have become free. How many battles were won against evil; how many illusions were burned; how many girls raped; how many manifestations were suffocated; how many lovers will have dreamed again; how much vileness the CIA or the KGB, the Banks or the Vatican have committed today. How many humans will have stopped believing in God; how many gods will have stopped believing in humanity. How many young people will have started today to fight for a different world? The answer, my friend, is blowing in the wind. And in the opaque African night, a quiet and noiseless jail”. February 13, 1978.

 

  • “Les pauvres ne comprennent que leurs malheurs, mais pas les malheurs des autres”. [1]  April 04, 1978.

 

  • "These EXPERIENCES, I would like them to be published one day. Not because they are mine, but because there are few people who leave written what they learn wherever they go”. April 04, 1978.

 

  • “All prophets have ever thought of committing suicide”. April 28, 1978.

 

  • “It is too late to learn to live without you. My God, have mercy on us”. July 08, 1978.

______________________________________________________________

 

  • “Oh God, far away and longed for, before I speak to you, you know everything. But I do not know. I do not know how you are or where you are and I want to know again who I am and what you want from me. I am almost 30 years old and there is a long way traveled here. Since I was a young man, you made me or they made me believe that I was a prophet, that I could be useful for the spirit of many people.

 

“So I began my journey, always on the way, trying to give the best of me, trying not to discredit the message, acting as a clown, toy or revolutionary depending on the case. The thing is that I'm tired. I am tired of doing community and common good at such high prices. How easy it would be to behave like a wagon, not a machine!

 

“But now, my God, I do not know to behave as a wagon either. Or I continue as a machine or withdraw from circulation. I fail the forces, they are too many wagons for so few machines. In addition, we are always pointed out, persecuted, prejudiced, suspicious, seen as dangerous.

 

“I hope one day I will understand everything, everything I suggested for others and dreamed for myself. But that day is opaque and you are still in the cloud gray, expressionless and worrying. We are presiding over your dinner and hungry of you; preaching community from the loneliness. Even if I make all my questions aware, I do not know if you want me to get the solution right.

 

“What seems clear to me is that in February I must return to Burundi, because otherwise the gesture of having come here, and with it, the gospel and the planetary struggle would be empty; and also, because everyone is here for at least five years. On the other hand, I still have a lot of time to go to Spain, I can not make a parenthesis, I must try to work these next four months. As I must return, I must study kirundi, read and work.

 

“I have to find a new meaning to the three years I will still be in Burundi, at least three. I do not expect to come here to a community of life that convinces me. It has not been possible here either. Except for some groups of Church parallel to the official, I do not find a potable Christianity in the other communities. And no longer in an idealistic way, is that even the minimums are not given.

 

“All this, Lord, keeps me away from the Institution every day and makes me suffer, because my life has always been in this ‘Company’ and it would complicate my life to leave it. But the truth is that every time I see less possibilities in this institution, although I love the kind people who work in it. I see an institution incapacitated to change itself, enclosed in its affectivities and plots, with no overall vision or critical spirit. Very good wishes, but without forming an assembly or even pretend, without objectives, without rigor and without methods.

 

“Another aspect of my disappointment is the Native Church. In general, they copy from Europe the comfortable aspects, but not the struggle of Europe. Then comes our roll-patch, essentially substitute. The sooner we are not needed by them, the better. In short, many energies for few results. Not even a scratch to the compact block of the old church. I am far from this people and I do not think I can get any closer. My closeness is not satisfied with the effusiveness of greetings or certain works of social promotion. I need more. June 08, 1978.

 

“I was learned, Lord (I do not know for how long) to be more modest in my pretensions. In the end, it is a reasonable, obligatory capitulation. The objective conditions allow us to do nothing other than ‘normal’. I only ask you not to be a secessionist, not to be a dreamer to burn alone.

 

“I think you gave me strength to imagine a more patient, more molded life, without being for that reason less revolutionary. I must return to a quiet life. If not, my nervous system will not hold. They are 2,000 meters high, with dangerous brain pressure. I must think quietly, and read calmly. Nor is it wasted time, I needed it long ago.

 

“What I want, Lord, is to be able to stand here for three more years without any jolts. The Institution does not allow more; and I do not see feasibility of working in parallel. So we will continue here in the least uncritical way possible. In February, I will be back for a few years. Then I will go to Europe, where I will be more useful than here. How can I live here for three more years without betraying this people, taking them seriously, that's next problem.

 

“As a psychological and practical exercise, I will study Kirundi every day that I can in these four months that I have to go to Spain. It is hard to study a language that will no longer serve me for anything, but I must do it while I live and work here. It is a guarantee of coherency and the joy of being on the right track, because you did not make me come here as a tourist.

 

“I have been in continuous belligerence against the structure at all levels for ten years. It is not wrong to fill the box with 'explosives' again for when its time comes. Silence is also transformative. Over time, there are people who trust you just for being there, in your position. And in addition, the exaggerated activity gnaws, is subversive of the spirit, produces landslides and makes lose the balance.

 

“I want, Lord, to be closer to you to be sure that my life, the human species, the cosmos and the microbes, evil, mystery and torture... have a reason for being, a consistency in Someone that sustains being and nothingness.

 

“The safest moments of my life have been with you. When you have spoken to me through my mental torture and have calmed down, I have found that fullness and no one has given me that security outside of you. I'm going to ask you for this security, of course, enough not to separate from you. It will not be much, because you can not live safe on an insecure boat, but it will be enough to survive.

 

“I've had too many years of insecurity; this ‘profession’ is one of the most apt to suffer your absence, to forget you. As a child, I wanted to be a mechanic, like my uncle”. June 10, 1978.

______________________________________________________________

 

  • "Being a Christian, the book that I was looking for”. [2]  July 10, 1978.

 

  • “I am no answer to myself”. July 25, 1978.

 

  • "The six years as priest have separated me from God. I've never been so far from you, Lord”. August 03, 1978.

 

 

 


 

 

 

[1] “The poor understand nothing but their misfortunes, but not those of others” —a native student of Nyangwa.

 

[2] It is a book of Hans Küng, priest and Catholic theologian, born in Switzerland (1928). See:  https://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hans_K%C3%BCng

 

1978 August:  Pedro, Pio with his son and Roberto

 

  • ETERNAL QUESTION: A VIRTUE CALLED POVERTY  [1]

 

Poverty is a relative value. And it is only virtue when it is chosen according to a service. A vow of poverty for purely individual holiness is outside the evangelical spirit, it is against. All the virtues are in function of the common good. Opting for the poor is to improve their common good in quantitative aspects, such as their standard of living, per capita income or means of progress, and qualitative, such as their organization, their freedom and solidarity.

 

In our case, Europeans in Burundi, we can not play to make the poor: either you are poor or you are not. If we are poor, we should look like them: live in a hut, dress like them, have the same means, the field or the cows. This would mean ending the traditional mission, not having vehicles or money. Also, if we had abundant money, they would steal it, as now they steal us what they can.

 

It would also mean receiving nothing from Europe, not creating jobs or services, except in collaboration with them. And it would mean exposing ourselves to diseases from which they are immunized, we would not have medicines.

 

It is clear that we would enter into immediate conflict with the civil and ecclesiastical structure, which would take a long time to assimilate a revolution from within and made by foreigners. However, this choice would have countless positive aspects. People would no longer see us on a pedestal. After several years, we would be free of suspicion, closer affective and sociologically. Opinions would split, but the credibility of the message would shoot up immediately.

 

Other white missionaries would be encouraged to do the same. Many Barundis  [2] would stop reifying us, and they would no longer expect only economic advantage from us. A part of the Institution would doubt itself; and the other, would attack us.

 

Questions. We do not know if we would be able to carry that kind of life. We may not be equipped either linguistically, mentally or sociologically. We do not know if it would be profitable, if we would really be more useful to the people than now.

 

At first, almost nobody would understand our gesture, because poverty is not a value for the ‘public opinion’ here, where the obsession is to flee from it (and from the country) rather than face it. We also do not know if we would overcome our situation as socially marginalized.

 

In Tanzania, mandatory urban concentration has reduced missionaries' integration problems. But the dispersion of habitat in Rwanda and Burundi makes our integration in the sociological environment more difficult.

 

Conclusions. There will always be interchanges between the churches, but the historical moment seems to indicate that the sending of missionaries to the Third World will decline much more in the coming decades, at least from Western Europe. The mission remains a patch against the heavy problems of the third world.

 

In summary. We are SIGNS, we mean something different than the other whites, as we see by their behavior and their vocabulary: they are called ‘bazungu’ (tourists, visitors) and we ‘bapatiri’ (missionaries, relatives). But we are NOT MODELS, they can not imitate us. And we accept this reality without complexes of guilt.

 

Our role here is to help them with the goal that one day they do not need us and to foster their own originality. Meanwhile, we continue in search, shortening possible distances, enhancing moments of encounter, inventing a liberating collaboration for our two cultures”. August 25, 1978.

______________________________________________________________

 

  • “Of the 365 days of the year, we spend more than 300 days without leaving a square kilometer, counting the walk that we give in the afternoons to greet the neighbors. [3]  The rest of the days, we leave specially to Gitega (to work, of course): there are no bars, no cinemas, not a bad nightclub". September 01, 1978.

 

  • “To a friend who wishes to come here, I would tell him: not to arrive by adventure or change of air, to come with a spirit of criticism and creativity, to have a serious capacity for reflection and solitude, to know how to live in a team and to speak some French. [4] If one does not meet these attitudes, my modest opinion is that he does not come".  September 01, 1978.

 

  • “Let us not have any illusions. The change of structures of the underdeveloped countries will be impracticable without a change of structures of the developed countries. [5] The expression must be translated verbatim". September 01, 1978.

 

  • “The first time he looks at the window, John Paul II has told us about the importance of the rosary. [6] If he were not polish, I would not forgive him". October 29, 1978.

 

 

 

[1] It is a joint reflection on the Nyangwa Mission Team (excerpts).

 

[2] In the Kirundi language, one Burundian is called umurundi. And in the plural, it is abarundi. When non-Francophone foreigners speak of them, we often use the same Kirundi word: the “Barundi” (without the prefix “a”, meaning “them”). We used to add also an idiomatic S (= barundiS).

 

[3] They are Extracts from the Nyangwa Report 1978, drafted and endorsed by the seven members of the Nyangwa mission: four priests and three nuns. But our diocese of Tarazona (Zaragoza-Spain) did not consider it pertinent to publish it. A year and a half later, as will be seen, the Nyangwa Mission ceased to be headed by Spanish missionaries.

 

[4] They are Excerpts from the Nyangwa Report 1978. Section "What would you advise a friend who would like to come as a missionary?" It is Opinion of one of the seven (Pedro).

 

[5] They are Excerpts from the Nyangwa Report 1978. It is the text of the famous Brazilian Catholic bishop Hélder Câmara (1909-1999), cited here as a solvent person on criteria of development in the third world: “If I give food to the poor, they call me holy. If I ask why the poor do not have food, they call me a communist”. See, among other sites, http://www.revistafusion.com/2001/marzo/temac90.htm.

 

[6] During the election of the new Pope John Paul II, I was in Italy. I had left Burundi for a stay of about four months in Europe. In addition to visits to Asturias, Zaragoza and about 20 villages in our diocese of Tarazona, I contacted the Italian groups that supported our mission, through Teresa, one of our nuns in Nyangwa. I was in Sardinia, Bergamo, Milan and Rome. 

 

A few months later, in January 1979, I returned to Italy with our Bishop of Tarazona, Victorio Oliver, who personally thanked them for all their technical and human support to the Nyangwa mission, led by us, four diocesan priests of Tarazona: ANTONIO, ALFREDO , ROBERTO Y PEDRO. A community of nuns, Daughters of Charity, specialized in Medical Dispensary, Social Promotion and Rural Development collaborated with the Mission: MATILDE (Navarra-Spain), TERESA (Sardinia-Italy) and PATRICIA (Maryland-United States). Later, they were MADELEINE (France) and SECUNDA (Burundi). Also, GUIDO and ANA (Italy) as a lay partner of agricultural technicians, with their two small children: RITA and SAMUELE

 

 

Year 1979, news

IRAN, February 01: Ayatollah Khomeini returns triumphantly to Tehran. The imposing police structure of the “Sha of Persia”, in disarray.

UNITED STATES, March 28: The nuclear power plant near Harrisburg has had the biggest accident ever in history.

NICARAGUA, July 20: The Sandinistas, to Power. It is after 43 years of Somoza domination and 20 years of popular struggle, prolonged by the United States posture. It has cost 200,000 dead, 600,000 people homeless, 250,000 refugees and an external debt of 1,500 millions of dollars.

GERMANY FEDERAL, July 29: Herbert Marcuse died at age 81.

CUBA, September 03: Meeting of 97 non-aligned countries, chaired by Fidel Castro.

IRAN, November 04: US embassy in Tehran stormed. There are 50 hostages.

UNITED STATES, November 11: With a fall in sales, the car industry dismisses 40,000 workers.

LIBYA, December 02: US embassy assaulted and burned.

VATICAN, December 18: Hans Küng is forbidden to teach as a Catholic theologian.

AFGHANISTAN, December 26: Invaded by Soviet troops.

 

On horseback between two cultures

This expression refers to a text by Michel Kayoya, a Burundian priest murdered in the 1972 genocide. From his book Entre deux mondes, [1] published in Bujumbura in 1970. The complete sentence is quoted below.

 

  • “After four months in Europe, I return to Burundi. This second trip makes me much more difficult than the first, although nobody knows more than me”. January 11, 1979.

 

  • “Yes, my friends, we are sacrificed, the fruit of a meeting of cultures. A generation of transition. Shoots not yet recognized by the past, still unnamed buttons of a civilization that is being born… On horseback between two cultures, I felt in unstable equilibrium. I studied not to live, but to answer questions asked by others. I could cite precisely the achievements of Caesar, the victories of Alexander the Great, the gadgets of the Bourbons, the taking of the Bastille, the House of Spain, the boundaries of Lithuania, the King of Wales... And there was everything, then the diploma. I do not remember learning to get my people out of underdevelopment. No subject has pushed me to change it, improve it, make it more beautiful” —Michel KAYOYA in 1970. January 20, 1979.

 

The following experiences remind me of Antonio Machado: “At peace with others and at war with my bowels”. [2] They denote that I spent an intimately very tense time, I feel like a prisoner of destiny and the human species. I transcribe the texts identically, just as I wrote them in 1979.

 

  • “If I ever have to go to jail, I'll remember Nyangwa”. February 06, 1979.

 

  • “The stage of the great discoveries I consider closed in my life”. February 08, 1979.

 

  • “Nagasaga cane, mama we!”  [3]  February 10, 1979.

 

  • “The biggest hope I have in this fucking life is that one day ends”. March 31, 1979.

 

  • “Monsieur le Ministre du Commerce et de l'Industrie: J'ai l'honneur de recourir à votre haute bienveillance  [4] pour vous demander l'autorisation d'obtenir de l'essence". April 23, 1979.

 

  • “Preaching my disaffection to the current Government of the Catholic Church  [5] has become a passion for me". April 27, 1979.

 

  • “Lovers of gossips are useless to organize the common good”. May 12, 1979.

 

 

  

[1] KAYOYA, Michel (1970): Entre deux mondes. Bujumbura: Presses Lavigerie. Michel Kayoya (1943-1972) was assassinated by the Tutsi leaders in the 1972 genocide, for being an influential Hutu. He was a priest since 1963. He was also a philosopher, educator and poet. He wrote Sur les traces de mon Père (1971) and some other work that was not published at the time. In his short life, he emphasized as social organizer and dynamizer of the economic autonomy of the people and the church. In 1965, he launched a training project for young girls who opted for a religious life in the Burundian style, supportive and cooperative with the development of the village, mostly farmer.

 

He was arrested on the night of May 13, 1972: “When Kayoya arrived in prison, we were so courageous that we all started to sing” —says a Protestant student who managed to escape—; “Let us go to our Father's house”, he used to repeat us. Another witness said: “Before the execution, Kayoya sang the Magnificat and forgave those who were going to kill him. Some of the soldiers who shot him, wept”.

 

That is taken from the author Marc NSANZURWIMO, student under the direction of Francis OBORJI, Secretary General in Rome of the International Association of Catholic Missiologists (IACM). This article was published in 2004:

http://www.dacb.org/stories/burundi/f-kayoya_michel.html

 

[2] MACHADO, Antonio, Proverbios y Cantares I, XXIII: “Do not surprise, sweet friends, that my brow is wrinkled; I live in peace with men and at war with my bowels”. This paragraph has been taken directly from www.todosobrebaeza.com/literatura/poesiasMachado.html.

 

[3] Death on the hill, cry of despair: “Goodbye forever, mother!”

 

[4] Another ingredient in the lists of the Absurd, the usual formula for requesting gasoline: “Mr. Minister of Industry and Commerce, I have the honor of resorting to your high benevolence and begging you to obtain gasoline”… No comments.

 

[5] It is a paraphrase of Mahatma Gandhi (1869-1948) on the British Government of India.

 

 

1979: Roberto with Deio, Rita & Samuele

 

  • WHAT DO THE BISHOPS OF ARAGON THINK?

Textual selections

 

 

Dear Don Victorio:

 

Those of Italy remind you a lot, for all the letters that come to Teresa, which are not few. For our part, this time we tell you our thoughts from the last team meeting. We see that our role is not to be here all our lives, not even too many years: the future belongs to the Native Church.

 

On the other hand, we can not and do not want to get too disconnected from Europe. It is common sense that one day we will return to Spain, and in particular to Aragon. In this way, we have arrived at some elementary conclusions that we would like to know the other bishops of Aragon and even the priests.

 

Our work as missionary priests in Nyangwa would end on the Easter of 1981, that is, within 2 years. This is a normal decision within the role of the secular priest Fidei donum here. The diocese of Tarazona, through its bishop D. Francisco Álvarez, engaged for 3 years with Nyangwa. From January-75 to Easter-81, 6 years go by, a reasonable period of time for a Fidei donum team and average stay in Burundi by most secular priests.

 

If you, the bishops of Aragon, believe that it is worthwhile to inform the Aragonese Church with a view to a possible continuity, now would be the opportune moment to do so. In this way, the one that came within one year would then have another year of adaptation with us before our departure.

 

Naturally, if the circumstances changed and the candidates appeared later, we could extend that period, always with a view to continuity. We would like to know the opinion of the bishops of Aragon (if they have one) or know, at least, what they intend to do about it.

 

In serious information of what this is, we believe that at least the NYANGWA REPORT, which is the only synthesis signed by all members of the group, should be offered. In parentheses, we regret the delay with its publication: at the end of May, neither we received the brochure nor know the reasons.

 

In summary, then, we would like to know if there will be continuity, if you have to ask the Church of Tarazona or also the Aragonese; and whether the bishops are able to tell us what they have done or are planning to do about it.

 

We wish you an end of course with the least headaches possible. It is from Nyangwa, and with our usual cordiality. May 22, 1979.

 

 

  • “The official reason for our expulsion is an attack on the security of the State in gestures, attitudes and words. What gestures, what words, what attitudes? We ignore it”.  [1]    June 11, 1979. 

 

  • “They leave Burundi, expelled by his government, the following qualified Christians: 10 Protestants of various nationalities and more than 43 Catholics: 19 Italians, 10 Belgians, 4 Canadians, 3 French, 3 Swiss, 2 Spaniards and 2 Poles”. June 11, 1979.

 

 

 

[1] They are Excerpts from the Press Text in Brussels. With this grave measure, the Tutsi government of Bagaza unveiled its openly hostile position with regard to the aid that Burundi received from the Catholic and Protestant Missions. Nor did he want international witnesses who spoke Kirundi and lived in the interior, while with Francophone whites in the capital they had no problems.

 

Thus, while Habyarimana, Hutu President of the Government of Rwanda, decorated the missionaries, here in Burundi they were expelled. From this moment (June 1979), an official campaign was intensified by Radio Burundi that extended the fear among the population: “Beware of foreign missionaries, some are wolves dressed in lambs”.

 

1979:  Pedro & Roberto go into action

 

  • WE ENTER IN NO RETURN AREA

HOMILY in Nyangwa and Branches, June 16, 1979

 

 

These days you have heard many lies about the things that have happened. The country's authorities have taken very serious decisions. They have made calls on the radio and newspapers, accusing the bishops and many priests. The top representatives of the Second Republic have already expelled 70 missionaries, Catholics and Protestants. The first group left Burundi on 1 June. And the second group, on the 11th.

 

We, the missionaries of Nyangwa, knew many of the expelled missionaries and believe that we are like them in spirit and works: we want unity of the country, justice, authentic harmony for all Burundians. For the moment, Jesus gives us strength to continue among you and not to be afraid of any kind. Jesus reminds us in the gospel: “The truth will set you free”. This same truth is what brought us to Burundi. [1] God is truth, love and freedom. June 16, 1979.

 

  • LETTER TO TARAZONA.

Textual Excerpts.

 

 

Dear Don Victorio:

We have received your last letter. About the expulsions, we thank you for what you have helped our families […] It is another thing that we have just decided and that we believe is important: if the brochure on Burundi were not already imminent for publication, our decision is not to publish. The reason is simple: circumstances have changed a lot since we did it in April-78. July 02, 1979.

 

  • “Three years in Nyangwa... ‘In difficult times,  [2] we must see our succeses, look at our bright prospect and increase our courage". August 31, 1979.

 

  • “Dad God, I thank you because I was born poor, and because at 31 years I still live with the poor: it's the only diploma I have".  [3] September 25, 1979.

 

 

 

[1] Extract from our public homily at Nyangwa and Branches. The usual language with the people, as well as the masses and the homilies, were always in kirundi. Only with a minority of Burundians did we speak in French.

 

[2] Mao Zedong (1944): Quotes from President Mao Tse-tung. Beijing 1966. It was the 1st edition in Spanish, p. 207. Taken in turn from Selected Works, tome III, "Serving the People" (September 08, 1944). President Mao Tse-Tung's Quotations, better known in the West as Mao's Red Book, where like the "Chinese Bible" from 1964 to 1978, with the coming to power of Den Xiaoping. It is estimated that since its first publication, more than 900 million copies have been edited, making it the second most published book in history, only behind the Christian Bible. The members of Communist Party should always  carry it with them. Their learning was compulsory in schools, workplaces and many other collective centers. See:

http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Citas_del_Presidente_Mao.

 

[3] Today I turned 31 years old.

 

 

Year 1980, news

IRAN, January 01: The embassy of the Soviet Union, attacked in Tehran, by the occupation of Afghanistan.

GUATEMALA, January 31: The Spanish Embassy, previously occupied by some 30 peasants, has since been assaulted and burned by the Guatemalan police, which ignored the mediatorial attempts of the Spanish ambassador, Jaime Ruiz del Árbol. There are 39 dead, including several Spaniards. The only survivor is the ambassador.

SPAIN, March 14: The naturalist Félix Rodríguez de la Fuente and TVE personnel die in Alaska, in an aviation accident.

GERMANY FEDERAL, March 18: Erich Fromm dies at age 79.

EL SALVADOR, March 30: More than 200,000 people attend the funeral of Archbishop Oscar Romero, shot dead by the ultra-right in the cathedral itself. The army has fired on the participants, causing more than 40 dead. Oscar Romero died on the 24th.

FRANCE, April 15: Jean-Paul Sartre died today in Paris at age 74.

ZIMBABWE, April 18: Ancient Rhodesia becomes Africa's 50th state. Robert Mugabe, Prime Minister of the country.

 

ITALY, August 2: 83 people killed and more than 200 injured in a terrorist attack in Bologna. The neo-fascist nucleus, the author of the attack, reports that it has chosen Bologna for being, for many years, managed by the Communists.

UNITED STATES, November 4: Republican Reagan defeats Democrat Carter. Reagan was a movie actor.

ARGENTINA, December 10: Adolfo Pérez Esquivel, founder of Justicia y Paz for Latin America (Justice and Peace), who was arrested and tortured in 1977, received the Nobel Peace Prize.

 

We can not be toys

in the hands of a few people

 

This is the reason why we resign publicly in front of our Burundian Archbishop of Gitega. This public fact, which they interpreted intimately as an affront, unleashed our official expulsion from the country by the Government of Burundi, as we shall see. The year 1980 was an intense year in every way.

 

I will not comment just because everything is said in the documents themselves that I quote verbatim. By publishing them here three decades later, my intention is not due to any kind of frustration or impertinent protagonism, but to the desire to contribute to the global interpretation of our past history. Many times, we easily forget facts that once actually occurred (historical). Even with some frequency, we do not even have access to them.

 

We are accustomed to only telling the story of the victors and the well-placed, but I try to bring here the other side of the coin, the dialectical face of that situation that I had to live. The structure of these facts and their consequences is well known in Sociology. The dominant elites almost never accept the emerging or alternative models to the own paradigm or model that they hold.

 

If all were to end here, it would have no greater importance and we would register the disagreement in the normal divergence between different humans, a kind of unavoidable “freedom of expression”. But no, dominant groups or persons also use slander and sanction to the dissident (for them, “the end justifies the means”), which is no longer part of the normal exercise of freedom of expression, but of the long history of oppressors and oppressed: class struggle exists.

 

  • NOTES FOR NUNS   [1]

 

Twenty kilometers of tractors

Once, on an icy day in February-1976, there were in Spain 2,000 tractors prepared to take the big city. And the civil guard and the provincial charges came there. The one of the old Agrarian Chamber went by megaphone to the farmers:

 

—If you enter the big city, the unemployed in the industry will join you, and also those who are on strike; and also many others, who will use the tractors to use you. Realize what I say: they will use you!”  [2]

—“That they use us!” —a desperate tractor driver with balaclava in the head shouted angrily.

 

The end of this story was given by the Civil Guard with their submachine guns, but the moral comes at the end. Sisters are not only important because they are many, but because they support, in large part, the Catholic Church's specialty in the last centuries: charity. Historically, every reason has been good for founding a congregation. That is why we arrived today, in 1980, to 1,173 female religious institutes in the Catholic Church, compared to 221 of men. [3] In Burundi, 37 female institutes operate. [4]

 

The USUMA Meeting

The Major Superiors, after the expulsions, have met to coordinate criteria. It is a shame that coordination is only of interest when ‘something happens’. But of course, when something happens, it is too late to coordinate, so you have to improvise information (or gossip), analysis, synthesis, strategy. And everything, in a few days, until ‘something happens’ again. The official church, like all Power, only changes habits when something happens to it. Of course, in fact, to do good is not so much needed (“do not look at who”). But I have certain doubts about that way of seeing things and that's why I start to partager, [5]  for if, among all, we managed to hit the nail on the head.

 

Pluralism and dispersion

I have nothing against pluralism, originality and spontaneity. And I say it with all possible spontaneity. That is why I do not think it wrong that there are several institutes with their respective charisms, I believe in the charisms. What I do not think is that they all go free. The preaching of Jesus has a unity, an inner discipline, common criteria, some ‘dogmas’, a spirit, some constants of action, a specific ‘morality’. We call all this the ‘Church’. Ours is the Catholic, and the superiors are the bishops, individually or collectively. I suppose that the internal freedoms, the ‘autonomies’, are very well. But provided they do not dilute solidarity too much with the local and universal church, especially in the difficult moments. In my humble opinion, I think there is a lot of dispersion in Burundi. We see ourselves by chance in Bujumbura, but at an anecdote level, in cordial and superficial encounters.

 

Some compliments

We must thank the missionary sister, in general, several things. Ability to work, whatever is. The important thing is to work. Ability to suffer and loneliness. Nothing better than the third world to refine our spirit: difficult conditions, limited horizon, few and distant friends, monotonous life. Very outside the people, who could compensate for our marginalization; without great stimuli.

 

And that is all during many days. Submission to the elements; be it the companion or the regional one, the failure or the disappointment, the priests in luck or the letters of the nephews. Strong discipline of chapel (I could do without a chapel, although I could not do without praying, it is my great spiritual difference with any religious sister). Capacity for infrastructure. They have nothing to envy to any housewife. They are also good neighbors of the people nearby.

 

For homespun

Every virtue has also its reverse, to which I refer next. As a rule, women occupy a secondary place in the church. The great contemporary theologian Hans Küng, in his book-synthesis 20 theses on Being Christian, adds 16 theses on the position of women. Among other things, he says: “A manifest example of the non-representation of women is the Congregation of Religious of Rome, whose members do not count a single woman. Likewise, the Ecumenical Council, according to current legislation, can only have male representation”. [6] And later, he says: "Both Jesus and the early church, in order to value women, were ahead of their time. The current Catholic church is limping behind its time and other Christian churches". [7]

 

The nun is programmed by her superiors for homespun. Burundising the appreciation, it is easily verified that the role of the religious sisters is that the services work: dispensaries, centers of promotion and some catechumenate. They do not think or decide on important things, or on parish or diocesan pastoral lines. They are trained for a subsidiary role: ‘he who obeys, is never wrong’.

 

Programmed from inside

If two or three women religious on their own initiative had the audacity to convene a free religious meeting on any subjet, the Regional would be offended. Regional Superiors like to know everything. And if it can be, before it happens. In a Congregation, a self-critical initiative is not conceived without the blessing of the superiors. The Superior sisters usually feel very solicitous of their daughters (more than partners).

 

Naturally, the one who moves the most is the Regional one, which is for that. The regional knows the combinations that can be made when changing to a sister. She is the only one who knows (above all, discretion). Certain things should not be talked about all together because the nerves burst. It is better to explode separately, when the Regional is no longer there. The regional ones are very fond of the meetings, especially if they are organized by them: themes, dates, places, invited people and method. In some things, the Regional is a simple delegate: “They say from the Council”…

 

Programmed from outside

In the fall of 1978, the Vatican had the audacity to let about 15,000 women religious enter the Audience Hall. The man dressed in white, John Paul II, for a moment thought that the 15,000 celibate women were going to eat him. Many, of course, jumped the fences. That must have been too much, you know…

 

And it happens that the religious sisters, as a rule, they are very hierarchical and very filial. So filial that sometimes they get out of line and jump the fences. The Vatican naturally seeks children. It is enough to observe the maternal request of any document. Of course, to a father we always put up with more things than a partner. That is why the Vatican's slogans to the Councils and General Mothers always stimulate the “well-known spirit of their beloved daughters”. The point is not to treat on you, which is more democratic and less fine (and then over, they ignore you).

 

Christ and I, overwhelming majority

All these roots, only suggested with a little humor, influence the religious sisters, in theory liberated by the Kingdom, to be docile daughters and individual spirituality (even if they pray the hours in community). There are clearer consequences than water. They consume more energy in submitting to a situation than in changing it (one alone never changes anything).

 

Since the Council (1962-1965), they say that more than 150,000 nuns have left their habits. There are explanations for all tastes: “It is better to go out than to be a bad religious”, “There are many more who remain”, as a nun of a General Council annotated. But has a serious analysis been done? Some say: “No need, women we are more intuitive”... So we like well-made magazines, very orthodox and even charismatic. If it is possible, better with photos of children, flowers and some sunset. Themes of theology, history, politics or criticism, do not take away the dream from us, they are not our business.

 

Use us!

The conclusion. Sisters can take the lead or a subsidiary role, get out of their “rugos”  [8] or wait for the Regional, take the iniciative or shout, like that farmer with tractor: "Use us!" Nyangwa Mission, January 06, 1980.

 

 

 [1]  My article was published in DESENLACE (denouement), magazine for Spanish missionaries in Burundi. Faced with the difficult political situation that lay ahead of us and tired of so many “religious” infra-analyzes, fatalistic or gratuitously providentialist, (“the Church has always been persecuted”), my missionary companion Roberto and I decided to send to all missions where Spanish men or women worked, other type of communications than the usual ones.

There was also another legacy magazine, ENLACE (link), which did not really link anything. We also sensed that some kind of collective denouement was about to arrive, as was seen when the government banned masses, meetings of the Inama Sahwanya or Native Council, Catholic and Protestant magazines, etc. Meanwhile, many priests and nuns could not think of anything but pray, resign and continue “doing the good”, but no “political analysis”. Some even thought that the Franco regime had not been a dictatorship or that “it was not so bad”.

 

 

[2] It was a real fact witnessed by me. That day, the three priests living in Vera de Moncayo had come out on the road in solidarity with the Aragonese and Spanish farmers: “The farmer can no longer be the poor relative of an enriched family” —President Arias Navarro had already proclaimed in his investiture speech, on February 12, 1974. The “big city” refers to Zaragoza. The fact that is narrated happened in the direction of Zaragoza, past the crossing of Gallur, with the spirits and the tractors “up in arms”.

 

Zaragoza today has about 700,000 inhabitants. It is the fifth city of Spain in population, after Madrid, Barcelona, Valencia and Sevilla. See:

https://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zaragoza —Footnote for the English edition.

 

 

[3] It is taken from VIDA NUEVA Weekly, number 1064, January 22, 1977.

 

 

[4] It is taken from Report of the Bishops of Burundi, brought to Rome in 1978.

 

 

[5] The verb partager (share) was an emblematic word in the slang of many religious communities.

 

 

[6] Hans Küng: 20 tesis sobre Ser Cristiano. Madrid 1977, Editions Cristiandad, p. 85.

 

 

[7] Hans Küng: 20 tesis sobre Ser Cristiano. Madrid 1977, Editions Cristiandad, p. 88.

 

 

[8] Urugo, in Kirundi, means the "family home", the hut and its surroundings. Our usual word ("I've gone to a rugo").

 

 

  • THE BENEFACTORS,

TO WHOM DO THEY BENEFIT?  [1]

 

 

Blessed the poor within an order

The Christian churches have combined since the time of Constantine two forms of near presence, apparently contradictory: with the powerful and the marginalized. A plastic synthesis we would have in Mrs. Marquise presiding over a table of Charity.

 

In the same way, the official church has generally been concerned with understanding the powerful while giving the founders of charitable projects a green light. But the contradiction has not really been antagonistic, but apparent. The kind part was preached and the conflict was left in shadow: Luke 6: 20-23 against Luke 6: 24-26. The mission of the religious was to exalt the humble, but without overthrowing the powerful. Only in this way was possible the charity of Madame Marquise.

 

Of course there have always been prophets who realized the trick, but we already know what happens to the prophets. The prophets both bother civil and religious power. So Jesus was condemned to death by both of them at once. For different and consistent motives, they agreed that Jesus was too free in front of the law: a heretic to be marginalized or annulled.

 

Causa finita, Roma locuta

A Belgian Dominican nun once taught me, in 1971, that the famous slogan “Roma locuta, causa finita” was now being reversed: first, the problem is solved going it alone, and in the end Rome goes and takes out a document sayingnot that way(and it is that we have lived a few centuries as car-broom).

 

The Church of Rome loses the East, the Orthodox. She loses half of Europe, Protestants. She loses the French revolution and the later ones in chain. In the nineteenth century, she was brazenly fought in all fields, philosophical, cultural and political. “The Catholicism of the last two centuries, as a whole, has been much more obstacle to liberation and instrument of injustice than the opposite. At this point, I have come to see very clearly” —Father Díez Alegría [2] wrote in a famous book.

 

From Karl Marx and other prophets of the workers' movement, many see religion as a brake on history: “For me, Hegel has been a sage... Marx was a prophet, a sprout sui generis of Amos, Jeremiah and of Zephaniah, the messianic prophet of the classless society”. [3]

 

Recently, when John XXIII opened the window for fresh air, Catholicism slowly began to recover. But the Vatican, with Paul VI at the head, is soon frightened, and at the end of the 60s, again locks the self-criticism, locks that remained throughout the decade of the 70s, crowned by a conservative Pope, Juan Pablo II. The College of Cardinals does not give more.

 

An alternative church

With many blows received and with many casualties, they make their way, in spite of the systematic boycott of the Official Church, a range of popular Christian communities, less and less impatient and disruptive, maintaining self-criticism from within, which is elegant.

 

One of the most analyzed fields is charity. The Jesuits were, as a group, perhaps the first to change the analysis of the evangelical profitability of their social works. In a few years, and throughout the world, a large percentage went from downtown to unpaved streets and without a bus.

 

It was necessary to invent a new presence: to participate, as one more, and prophetic, in the popular movements. This new way of being, with all its variants and years of delay, is being taken over by the female institutes. More and more religious women are going to live in a flat, town or city, with all the self-criticism that comes with leaving the bunker, whether college, hospital or convent.

 

The benefactors, to whom do they benefit?

How to apply this spirit to a reality as different as Burundi? Let us analyze together. A classic mission here helps three separate sectors: the rich, the poor and the middle class.

 

The mission helps the rich. The rich are often smarter than the poor; that a fool sees. The rich men have more money, justly or unjustly acquired; they travel more and see more; as they have to eat and dress, can take the tremendous step of dedicating themselves to boss around or to ‘save the country’. They have been able to take advantage of the mission for their own progress. In Burundi, the rich owe a lot of favors to the missionaries:

 

  • ....Could you leave me a wheelbarrow?

  • …Two drums?

  • …Some benches “for today only”?

  • …Collect my salary and bring it to me?

  • …To lend me 5,000 francs?

  • …To make me 3 machine copies?

  • …Take my wife in the car to give birth? (All go on foot, but mine is

    different, “special”).

 

The mission helps the poor. “The North Americans feel irresistibly impelled to do good... This conviction leads them to the need to bombard even certain villages to accept their gifts” —writes an American from the North. [4] We have more luck than the USA and we do not need napalm to be asked. But we resemble the USA in that we also need them to need us and thus stay more calm (“the poor people”).

 

The mission helps the middle class: the complete suit. Yes, yes, here is a middle class, born next to the missions: masons, secretaries, boys, nurses, monitors, arts and crafts, etc. In the long term, they are undoubtedly the most economically benefited. It is the typical product of the mission of the 70's. They have thus replaced the catechist, whose social prestige has declined in proportion to his salary.

 

This middle class has many usable aspects. But they have a basic defect: they do not want to be middle class, their model is the rich, invest in shoes, ties, watches of a lot of diameter, flashy skirts or ibitenges [5] that remove hiccups. That is, an extension of the consumer society: to have more to be more.

 

What if we leave?

As the panorama is now, one day not too far away, the native churches will take all the reliefs. At the moment, both the Official Church and the State need us to equip, maintain or create services. Neither of them is interested in us as educators or prophets: “wites are more handsome if they do not speak”.

 

 

A ‘murundi evolué’ (evolved Burundian) [6] can comment on Europe, but it is bad taste that a white European who works here issues his opinions on Burundi, "it is not prudent".

 

The economic and professional development of a people is not at odds with their spiritual liberation, on the contrary. The bad (and that's where we put our foot in it) is to believe plainly that a town is more developed by having running water or electric light. This does not work without the development of the mind.

 

We have to bother to explain the things as much as to do them: make projects talk, make them do it, instead of doing it myself. This road is a bit slower, little more, but it is firmer in the long run and is not built on sand. In addition to doing the project, we must involve the people in that project, and the people will have it as their own and defend it when we are not here.

 

Unmask developmentalism

Civil and religious power is interested in the holes being covered, but no explanation is given at all for why these holes are there. For example, since the State of the Second Republic of Burundi is assuming an increasing importance, it will repeatedly publish the tasks normally attributed to a ‘secular and modern’ State, as they like to be defined by radio. In fact, in a first stage, we will continue to do the same, but we will do it another way.

 

Here some examples. We will continue to build, but less, not foolishly, but involving more to the State, because the bricks remain in Burundi. Not in a hurry to finish. Stop the construction if they do not bring water or do not work as agreed. Never make the work a personal matter: the construction of the people is more important than that of the building. We will continue to take the Courier to the mission. But without missing the opportunity to publish that it is the State that should send the Courier to the recipient, not the missionaries. And that this is done in many countries.

 

We will continue to help the poor on solemnity. But we must make it clear to them and in public that it is the State that must organize the aid to the needys, because they are Barundi and live here. In the Commune  [7]  there is an official budget for Sports: why not another for poor? And that they do already all this in many countries. We will continue to move patients: "As the State is still incapable, for the moment we do it. In many countries the State does"..

 

Undressing the LETA, [8]

explaining its contradictions

 

In a second stage, we will reduce the favors of individual type that the State should provide: loans and advances, transport, services. But always explaining in a few words why we do not and giving clues to collective solutions: the Hill, the Zone, the Commune.

 

Make them see that missionaries can not fix personal cases one after another, because these are too many. And be sincere with ourselves to be sure that we do not do this to throw away the regime, but to educate the people, and to help the regime to be more modest in its demagogy and lies. That is, to explain their contradictions without breaking the rope. Let them see their own weakness to prevent them from becoming the god-LETA. In the long run, this method is more positive than spectacular and momentary actions, because people end up knowing what LETA is and what it is bound to do for the people and not just for the elite.

 

For the moment, we should not be naive, thinking that the people already know, but that is afraid. It is not true. Many still believe that missionaries have an obligation to do what they do, for they have come to help (‘ko muri abavyeyi’). [9] And this general conviction is nourished by the local political boss: the State, to command; and the missionaries, to help.

 

Bosses are well interested in a model of kind, anecdotal and clownish missionary. But the missionary-prophet produces them a visceral allergy. That is why political bosses get nervous when the church leaves sacristy, they break their ‘pocket church’ scheme. And they are who inculcate this model of domesticated, ‘integrated’ church.

 

The conflict

Naturally, this approach is of no interest to the Government or the Official Church. They are interested so that we help them without speaking, without saying why or for what. In a word, they are interested in what we give, not what we are. And this is called collaboration. We assume that all of these statements made red hot, have their nuances and their exceptions. But I do not think being too misguided. I wish someone would convince me that I am exaggerating and I am wrong: I would have taken a load off.

 

Liberation and transcendence

The proof that Christianity brings liberation is not the future world, but the present. We look so ardently to see God face to face that, even unintentionally, we transform this world. If the liberation of Jesus makes men and people more conscious, freer and more supportive, any realization that does not affect these areas is useless, even if they are works of art. If our help to this people makes him sleep in silence and fear, and then it makes unsupportive ‘climbers’, is that our charity is not the liberation of Jesus, it will be another thing. But if people leave more freely and supportive, it is worth pursuing.

 

Towards the year 2000: tracks for a mission alternative

As always, it is not a matter of recipes. We must invent it among many. But it is true that, despite the alleged confusion, there are many clear things. Third-world governments are every day more reluctant to the teachers who come from outside. They want technicians, not educators. And much less, prophets. They will have us while they need us. On the other hand, Religious staff in Western Europe continues to decline sharply; and although there will always be a collaboration between the churches, the moment seems to indicate the end of Western guardianship over the indigenous churches.

 

 

Historically, there is no longer time for imported developmentalism: that is what international agencies and companies are entrusted with. And finally, and despite all the deficiencies, the welfare fields are being gradually assumed by the new States. What will not do for many years neither the agencies nor the companies is: to teach to think, to be free and to organize against administrative corruption and the dominant minorities.

 

Nor will they teach that God exists, is love and speaks to us through Jesus of Nazareth. In my opinion, the work of the churches would go by these areas towards the year 2000”. —Mission Nyangwa, January 06, 1980.

 

 

[1] It is my second article in DESENLACE (denouement). The first (and only) number of DESENLACE included two articles by Roberto and two others by Pedro, which I include here.

 

 

[2] DÍEZ ALEGRÍA, José María: Yo creo en la esperanza. Madrid 1972, p. 56. He is already mentioned in the year 1975.

 

 

[3] DÍEZ ALEGRÍA, José María: Yo creo en la esperanza. Madrid 1972, p. 53. He is already mentioned in the year 1975.

 

 

[4] ILLICH, Ivan (1971): Libérer l'avenir (Release the future). Paris 1971, p. 18.

 

 

[5] Ibitenge means "long skirt" in kirundi. They are feminine dresses colored and very showy.

 

 

[6] Umurundi is "a Burundian" (singular). And Abarundi, they are "the Barundians" (plural). Many missionaries, in general, we used the original Kirundi word: "a Murundi" and "two Barundi". Here, a "murundi evolué" (evolved) is a Kirundi-French combination, used pedantically by some Burundians with studies to distinguish themselves from the others: "I, who am a murundi evolved, I do not understand why"  I heard surprised to an "evolved" of our mission...

 

 

[7] It is city Council or political branch.

 

 

[8] The word Kirundi LETA comes from the French l'état. Transplantation purely phonetic (there was not the concept of STATE).

 

 

[9] Ko muri abavyeyi”, a frequent introduction to ask us a favor: "as you are parents (benefactors)"... Sometimes is dressed in an interested, even demanding or rude justification: "You are here for that" (to help me).

 

 

Chance wanted that, just sent the magazine DESENLACE (as an anonymous, for obvious political reasons), we had to elaborate shortly after the harmless magazine ENLACE (link), whose composition was rotating. We called it “revista” (magazine), but they were some normal sheets, printed in black and white with bad duplicators and bad ink, like our DESENLACE.

 

We decorated for the occasion the cover of ENLACE with markers of color, to make it more “nice” (they were only about 20 copies). We never imagined then that the two “magazines” —ENLACE and DESENLACE— were to be our last collective communication with the Spanish missionaries in Burundi.

 

  • ENLACE “Magazine”, EDITORIAL

 

Well, we have to present our ENLACE (link) and the truth is that we do not think much of it. With it we send our most cordial greetings to all. Ah, it does not matter that another magazine circulates, the DESENLACE that... There are always people to boast as progressive or who want to be in the limelight, as a woman friend tell us very well in Letters to the Director. Anyway, that “this world needs a bit of everything”.

 

For our part, we invite you once again to fraternal charity and healthy pluralism within an order. And of course, we would not see with umwîkomo [1] that over time other uncontrolled magazines were going out. They could even be called REENLACE (re-link), DESENLAZANDO (unlacing) or even ENLACE à 3 and so on (link to 3). First of all, we need seriousness; because there are people who take everything for a joke. And that should not be either. Those of Nyangwa. February 01, 1980.

 

We had received several verbal reactions to the reception of DESENLACE, generally accomplices and approving. But the next “document” was the only written reaction we received on our articles in DESENLACE. The author did not sign the letter, although other comrades pointed out to us what religious she was (nun woman), disapproving of her. As can be seen, there was little anonymity among Spaniards.

 

I include here that letter as it came out in ENLACE and sent it herself, with the same number of ellipses or spelling and typographical errors included (Word “is not understanding” anything)… This is also a test of the “theological and political level” underlying a portion (that I think minority) of the missionary nuns of the time. With what is demonstrated once again that being “missionary or holy” and “having few lights” in the brain is perfectly compatible.

 

  • ENLACE Magazine: Letters to Director-1

 

Now there is a letter that has been received in ENLACE. It is anonymous, but with desire to be published. We transcribe it just as it was written. Bravery fulfilled. [2]

______________________________________________________________

 

Enero 1980

Pedro y colaboradores-as de “DESENLACE”

Cuando me llegó a mis manos “esos folios” fue una sorpresa por varios motivos. (algunos a continuación:)

 

*Los españoles tenemos una revista o folio “(como quieras llamarlo) “ENLACE” mas o menos atrayente (culpa de TODOS los españoles del Burundi); con el interés de mejorarla se habló en la reunión, tú y demás quedasteis “callados” (esos folios no los preparasteis en dos días) estábamos unos cuantos españoles porque no aprovechasteis

 

     a) para un “encuentro”

     b) a “partager” dabais mejor en el clavo……

     c) a evangelizar……

 

*El artículo para religiosas os lo podeis aplicar a vosotros mismos con relación a vuestro Obispo (local-Tarazona) TODOS tenemos que hacernos un buen examen.

*El artículo sobre la beneficencia es interesante, pero andate con cuidado en el tiempo actual, si es que deseais que os expulsen, con hablar abiertamente un día en la Iglesia o fuera, enseguida recibirás tu o vuestro billete de avión (ya que por lo visto os quedasteis con ganas (y con maletas hechas) sin relucir entre los 70 expulsados; solo eran dignos, aquellos que les suponía una renuncia, no aquellos que deseaban destacar como un candelero………

 

Por último quiero recordaros que aprovechéis “ENLACE” para los siguientes artículos, siempre que sean para, UNIR-ENRIQUECERNOS EN CRISTO- para vivir con mas AMOR hacia el projimo y nuestros burundis, NUNCA, para CRITICAR-faltar a la CARIDAD.

 

APROFUNDIZAR EL EVANGELIO en vuestra vida de cada día……

el MODELO se encuentra PERSONALMENTE en la CAPILLA, IGLESIA

de la missión, ENCARNEMOS ESE MODELO EN NUESTRAS VIDAS.

Vale.

Si sois valientes lo enviais a “ENLACE” para conocimiento de todos los españoles.

 

1-febrero-1980, en ENLACE

______________________________________________________________

 

Translation

January 1980

Pedro and collaborators of DESENLACE

When they came to my hands “those sheets”, were a surprise for several reasons (some below):

 

Spaniards we have a magazine or sheets (whatever you want to call it), ENLACE, more or less attractive (fault of ALL the Spanish of Burundi); with the interest of improving it was spoken at the meeting, but you and others were “quiet” (you did not prepare these sheets in two days). We were a few Spaniards, why did not you use it?

a) for a “meeting”

b) to share (that way you hit the nail better)…

c) to evangelize…

 

The article for religious you can apply to yourselves in relation to your Bishop (local-Tarazona) EVERYONE we have to do a good examination.

The article on charity is interesting, but be careful in the present time, if you want to be expelled; with open talk one day in the church or outside, you will receive your plane ticket right away; since apparently you were looking forward (and with suitcases made) without shining among the 70 expelled… Only those to whom this meant a renunciation were worthy, not those who wanted to stand out like a candlestick… [3]

 

Lastly, I would like to remind you to take advantage of ENLACE for the following articles, as long as they are for UNITE, ENRICH IN CHRIST, to live with more LOVE for the NEIGHBORHOOD and our Burundians, NEVER to CRITICATE or to miss the CHARITY.

 

DEEPENING THE GOSPEL in your daily life…

The MODEL is PERSONALLY found in the CHAPEL, CHURCH of the mission,

LET US INSERT THAT MODEL IN OUR LIVES

 

Okay, enough.

If you are brave, you send it to ENLACE, for the knowledge of all Spaniards.

 

February 01, 1980, in ENLACE

______________________________________________________________

 

Upon receiving the above letter, my colleague Roberto, co-author of DESENLACE and ENLACE, redacted another “letter to the director” of ENLACE (ourselves).

 

It was a metacritical to collective angelism. What Roberto did not imagine in January of 1980 is that, only four years later, he would make a living as a journalist, and that he would not stop writing in three decades, until his retirement. Just 28 years later, on January 24, 2008, the Aragon Press Association granted to him one of the three 2007 Awards to the “Journalistic Career”. Jokes of life. [4]

 

  • ENLACE Magazine: Letters to Director-2

 

“El enlace de la copla, me dijo un día mi padre, fue alegre, pero fue bueno, fue mi mujer, fue tu madre. No sabía cómo empezar y me he arrancado por Calatayud como podía haberlo hecho por el puerto de Salónica. O por Francia, a ver: L’ enlas de la couple m’a dit un yur mon per… No, no, pega. Echo mano del Larousse de posh para percatarme de que enlace allí se dice liaison. Recomienzo: La laison de la couple… ¡Pero qué es lo que estoy haciendo, virgen! Nada, voy a arriesgarme a lo tradicional aunque me estrelle:

 

“Queridos (as) amigos (as) españoles (as). Dos puntos (as)… Aquí sobreviene un encasquillage pertinaz del paréntesis de cierre. Bon. Me engancho un número atrasado de ENLACE para ver cómo se empieza esto y vale. Vamos a ver, voilà: Hola, lectores de ENLACE, ¿cómo estáis? (sigo solo, voy lanzao), ¿estáis bien o estáis mal? ¿eh? ¿eh?, lectores de ENLACE?… Bueno, pues nada, hala, ¿eh?…

 

“En este preciso instante, señoras y señores, se me acaba de calar el cerebro. Un aplauso. Y ahora, seguro que se negará a arrancar, el muy cabrito. No, si esto ¡ya se veía venir! En fin, la próxima vez, iré a que me redacte la carta la Secretaria-el Cónsul. Ah, y un abrazo (a vosotros, quiero decir). ROBERTO.”

 

1-febrero-1980, en ENLACE.

______________________________________________________________

 

Translation

 

The couplet link —one day my father told me— was cheerful, but it was good, it was my wife, it was your mother… I did not know how to start, and I started off by Calatayud as I might have done for the port of Thessaloniki. Or for France, let’s see: L 'enlas de la couple m'a dit un yur mon per... No, no, it does not paste. I consult the pocket Larousse to realize that link there is called liaison. The liaison de la couple… But what am I doing, virgin! Nothing, I'm going to risk the traditional even if I crash:

 

"Dear Spanish friends. Two points... Here there is a persistent blocking of the closing parenthesis. Bon. I hook up a late number of ENLACE to see how this starts and okay. Let's see, voilà: Hello, readers of ENLACE, how are you? (I go alone, I'm hurrying), are you okay or are you wrong? Hey, ENLACE’S readers? Well, nothing more, huh?

 

At this very moment, ladies and gentlemen, my brain has just stopped. An applause. And now, surely it will refuse to boot, the very bastard. No, this was coming! Anyway, next time, I'll go and get the letter written by the Miss Secretary of the Consul. [5] Oh, and a hug (to yourselves, I mean). ROBERTO. Februay 1, 1980.

 

 

[1] Umwîkomo was a very frequent word among the Burundians: malaise, rancor, bad mood.

 

 

[2] The English translation tries to be direct and correct, so as not to waste time: spelling or typography misses do not appear. But I expressly include also the text in Spanish as we received it then. In case any of the readers in English speak Spanish, you can perceive yourself the “level” showed here. —Footnote for the English edition.

 

 

[3] We never knew what the nun author was referring to with this invention of her own harvest, introduced as a rumor with an “apparently” (por lo visto). We did not carry suitcases in Bujumbura nor did we have any satisfaction to be expelled and that they play with our lives. These 70 missionaries expelled were not the first. The Bagaza government had already expelled another 16 Comboni missionaries in 1977 (among them, Jose Luis, a Mexican friend of mine with whom I coincided in Muyange in the Language Course). By the way, neither was there any joint reaction from the foreign missionaries and aid workers. With which the government grew.

 

[4] As it is brief, I did not want to suppress the letter of Roberto, although it is not to translate, it is a joking Spanish. In English, I just try to understand its context and that its content does not seem absurd.

 

 

[5] The Spaniards we did not have an Embassy in Burundi. The nearest one was in Kinshasa (almost 2,000 km from Africa). So we proposed that a Spanish missionary be accepted as a Consul.

 

 

  • How we have organized

that “famous” letter to the Pope

 

 

While we took off from ENLACE, Roberto and I had in our heads something else of greater scope: an Open Letter to John Paul II, signed publicly by both. The theologian Hans Küng had been disowned by the Vatican. He was not the first, but Küng was a great symbol and the Vatican had been showing signs of going backwards like a crab. This measure against Küng revolted us many European Catholics, like other decisions against Latin American liberation theologians. So we decided to “do something”.

 

As a procedure and in order not to interfere with individual spontaneity, we both agreed to prepare separately a letter in free model for now. We would do it in the week we were not communicating, because we would alternate: one went to one of the eight branches and the other maintained control of central Nyangwa. Then, there were no mobile phones, and the walkie-talkie was banned and looked at with evil eyes by the government (Tutsi military). In case of emergency, there was physical movement from the central to the branch, with the motorcycle or the car. And if it was not urgent, one of the boys or catechists was an intermediary, on foot or by bicycle.

 

At the end of that week, we shared the models of letter that had come to us. Roberto had made a humorous model and bent down over mine. I, like Roberto, had already written homilies committed at the end of the Franco dictatorship (1973-1976). I wrote this letter to the pope as those homilies, so that I could not repent of a single line, after what happened.

 

This letter was personally sent to John Paul II in Italian on February 06, 1980 from Bujumbura airport. We carried about 250 envelopes directly to the airport, well dressed, with a friendly face and speaking only in French, as if we were diplomats or officials. We got the impression that it was late for us, and we offered the Murundi official to help seal it, but he graciously refused our help: “It does not matter, these things sometimes happen”. We paid the fees and we gave him thanks effusively. Our intention was that the shipment should not be passed by any office soon enough for possible filter or censorship.

 

We send copies to our bishop of Tarazona, as well as the remaining five of Aragon and the president of the Spanish Episcopal Conference, Cardinal Tarancón. At the same time, it was sent to 215 publications and institutions from 51 countries, in 5 languages: Italian, Spanish, English, French and German. Also to several agencies, among them the following: Associated Press, France Press, Reuter, Tass and United Press International.

 

Along with the letter, a sheet with information on the possibility of verifying our identity, in the Bishopric of Tarazona (Zaragoza-Spain). In Spain, we sent it to about 20 influential news media, including El País, but it was only published by minority media, including the Aragonese weekly ANDALÁN, March 14, 1980.

 

We also included these examples of publications to which we were sending:

 

 

EUROPE

Publications

 

Vatican

Italy

Spain

France

Germany (FRG)

United Kingdom

Soviet Union

Poland

 

 

L’Osservatore Romano

Il Corriere della Sera

El País

Le Monde

Die Welt, Der Spiegel

The Times, The Guardian

Pravda, Izvestia, Literatournaïa Gazeta

Trybuna Ludu, Przekro

 

 

AMERICA

Publications

 

United States

Mexico

Brazil

Argentina

 

 

New York Times, Washington Post, Reader’s Digest

Avance, El día, El Universal, La Prensa

O Globo, Realidade, Exame

Clarín, La Nación, El Mundo, La Razón

 

 

 

ASIA

Publications

 

China

Japan

India

 

 

The People's Daily

Yomiuri Shimbun, Asahi Shimbun, Mainichi Shimbun

Navbharat Times, Statesman

 

 

 

AFRICA

Publications

 

 

Algeria

Egypt

 

El Moudjadid, Al Soumhouría

Al Akhbar, Akhbar el-yom, International Politics

 

 

 

In Burundi, we did not send it absolutely to anyone, nor to Spanish Missionaries friends or to any media, organ or person. We did not want to make an accomplice of our decision to anybody and, in addition, in such a small country would have jeopardized the initiative itself.

 

Only the German and English translators, as well as the sisters of our mission, knew it (one corrected it in French and one in Italian). We underline this point because, as we shall see later, this letter would be one of the four officially written reasons for expelling us from the country.

 

Whenever such a thing happens, yellow minds do not ask you about what you say in the letter or why you say it, but “how did you get the radio, TV and press postal addresses in 51 countries” or “who has translated you the document”.

 

Well, the postal addresses are taken from the favorite encyclopedia in France, the famous Quid. Then there was no Computer, neither the Internet nor Wikipedia or Google. Publications like Quid, with fine Bible paper and very small print, lent a great cultural service inside and outside of France. [1]

 

French, Italian and German were translated by Catholic missionaries. And to English, American Protestant missionaries (“how brave you are” —they told us). We could also have done it in Polish for John Paul II, as was our initial intention. But, on second thought, we gave up to avoid inopportune leaks, since some Polish missionaries could have understood it as something intimate or “national”. Others were one-dimensional, they did not understand western pluralism, as John Paul II himself never understood: “Since Descartes, everything has gone wrong” —the pope told Polish journalists. [2]

 

 

[1] Quid was an encyclopedic work in a single volume, of annual appearance. It was created by Dominique Frémy in 1963. The first edition was the size of a pocket book of 632 pages. From then on, it grew steadily until reaching, in the 2006 edition, the size of a large dictionary, with about 2,200 pages. Its commercial success was growing year after year. The last editions are also signed by Michèle Frémy, the wife of Dominique Frémy, who died in October 2008. Quid opened its website in 1997, under the direction of Fabrice Fermi: www.quid.fr. In 2006, the site received between 700,000 and 1,150,000 different visitors each month.

 

It was taken from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quid. Due to competition from Wikipedia, the 2008 edition of Quid was canceled by its publisher. Annual sales of the volume of 2,000 or more pages, which reached more than 400,000 copies in the mid-1990s, collapsed to just over 100,000 in 2007.

 

[2] The Catholic René DESCARTES (1596-1650) is considered the father of European modern philosophy, for his defense of individual conscience, the basis of future democracy (one person, one vote). His irrefutable truth was “I am a thing that thinks, I am someone: I think, therefore I am” (year 1637, Discourse on Method, IV).

 

 

  • OPEN LETTER TO JOHN PAUL II

 

Dear Brother John Paul II:

We are Catholics like you and priests like you. Do not doubt the love of this letter, even if it seems to you daring. It's a protest-letter. But we do not protest about everything. First of all, we thank you for your life dedicated to the Gospel, sometimes in such difficult situations; by the young air you pretend to radiate in your travels; because you know how to speak to the masses; for the times you work and suffer when preparing your interventions; for being Pope and carrying many inherited crosses.

 

But we have to tell you seriously other things that we can not and do not want to shut up. We see that in the Vatican you try to restore unrepeatable situations. You brake the research of some Christians. You call attention to Christians of the category of Shillebeeckx, Pohier, Iniesta, Metz, Hans Küng and others. We, brother, today want to draw your attention to you: to remind you of some things.

 

As you are acting, it will be an honor to be admonished by Rome. Do not make our institution more retrograde than it already is. You know well that the Church is a means, not an end. Do not resurrect the Inquisition. Do not fall into the temptation to control the Church. The Spirit of God has never been controllable.

 

Do not trust the applause. You know the masses and the real value of the days of tourism. Light is born from the cross. Do not ignore the marginalized Christians, whether they are right or left. Let them talk, think aloud. Let them believe in the Church. You know that in case of conflict, between Jesus of Nazareth and the Vatican of Rome, the election is not difficult.

 

By the way, be aware that, for many Christians, you represent us halfway. Not just you, but other popes. Every day that human rights advance, you are less representative. Well, who has chosen your cardinals? Who has chosen your bishops? Among 700 million Catholics, how many knew you two years ago?… We are sorry to say that we have not chosen you directly or indirectly. Neither you nor your cardinals nor your bishops. And we are sorry to remind you of your duty to democratize the Church in all managerial positions, because at this rate you will be left alone with your dogmatic tone and your fear.

 

You know well that we can not blame the Holy Spirit or Tradition at all. Our mistakes today are ours. If the Vatican should continue, it must be a democratic Coordinator of charisms, not a bunker of hand-picked charges.

 

Realize yourself, Brother John Paul. We have already lost a lot of time. We have already condemned many times... Open the door to the people. Do not be afraid of the people. The people are not only to applaud: they are also to decide and to vote. From the Council, the Vatican was afraid; and has kept the fear all the past decade. Break the labels once and for all and let the heart speak. Break with the vertical Church that represents itself. Break with discrimination against women. Do not make of faith a morality, and also out of date. Who are you to say, in the Church, who has to marry and who does not? Why do you speak out about Ecumenism and then you are so afraid of the union of Christians?

 

Do not think this letter is a challenge. It is a modest warning of two European priests, missionaries in central Africa. Two Christians who have known Jesus Christ in the Catholic Church and want to continue in it.

 

Brother John Paul, despite the sins of our Church, you continue to travel, continue to stimulate faith in Jesus Christ and human rights. But do not forget: outward and inward.

 

ROBERTO MIRANDA and PEDRO MENDOZA —February 06, 1980

 

 

  • “Our director has sent me your open letter to John Paul II. I immediately moved to the editors of our RELIGION department”. —Michel Kajman, newspaper LE MONDE (Paris), February 08, 1980. [1]

 

 

 

[1] Our letter had left Bujumbura on February 06, 1980, and only two days later LE MONDE dated its reply, which we received in Nyangwa on the 16th of February. It was an example of education and effectiveness that impressed us. At the same time, no Spanish information medium answered us (about twenty recipients).

 

 

  • THE BISHOP OF TARAZONA WRITES US.

Textual selections.

 

 

Dear friends, Roberto and Pedro:

I have let a few days pass since I received your letter, in which you sent me a copy of the letter that you had sent to world public opinion. I can not hide from you that I have spent bad times with it and I have suffered, because I believe that you have gone further than it should. I do not object in any way, as you understand, that you address the Pope. Every man, especially if he is a Christian, can do it for many reasons. The Gospel invites us to do it clearly, with simplicity, with valid reasons, with charity. As I would like to do with you in these moments.

 

Do you not think that the brother, in the Church, is first corrected in private, in secret? Witnesses are then adduced. Ultimately, it is done before the community. If Paul corrected in public, it was also within the brothers, within the community. And then always the two maintained deep friendship.

 

On the other hand, the security with which you express, do not you think another way of being dogmatic? Is the doctrine of the tradition of the Church of Jesus so clear? The way of doing it has hurt me too. You have made an excessive boast of strength, using the power of the great world news agencies, translating into several languages, making it reach all continents. Do not you think that this is not the power that Christians should use, and that I have heard you criticize?

 

I do not want to close the dialogue with you. I do not know who you talked to before you did it, who you shared it with, or the reasons you had. It is easy that neither our diocesan community nor the collaboration with the mission wins. Sorry to disturb you with my letter. But I had to do it for honesty, for affection and friendship with you. Write me soon. March 02, 1980.

 

  • LA CRÓNICA of LIMA (Peru)

 

“Two Spanish priests, interned in the heart of Africa, address a letter-protest to John Paul II with a copy in five languages to the main newspapers of the world”. —Carmen Meza Ingar, in the newspaper LA CRÓNICA of LIMA (Peru), March 15, 1980.

 

 

At this moment, all conflicts were unleashed at once, as will be read soon in the letter to our Bishop of Tarazona, in response to his from March 02, 1980. The dates that appear here always refer to the moment in which that text is written, not to the moment of reception. The order is always strictly chronological.

 

In this interval, I sent the following article to Nati, a nurse in Logroño and sister of a Spanish missionary in Burundi. They had visited us recently. The article was for TERMÓMETRO (thermometer), a small publication made by some health workers of Logroño (Spain). I wrote it with the same dedication as if I sent it to the New York Times.

 

  • “Dear friends Nati and Pilar: The bishop of Tarazona has written us, and the papal Nuncio in Burundi has already given a photocopy in Italian to the six bishops here: received from the Vatican, of course, since we were not going to give it to them in hand, being so bad the roads. As Nati reminded me of my promise to send her a collaboration for THERMOMETER (if I know, I do not), here you have me, obedient and submissive. This is the wrong moment. When the temperature drops, we will send you more things”. March 19, 1980.

 

  • “NORTH-SOUTH DIALOGUE”

 

Close your eyes and open your imagination. Relax: Read slowly, please. Do this slowly today, at least. You are fastening the belt of a SABENA boeing. Make like that's true, man, I can not help you if you do not want! From Zaventon, airport in the capital of Europe, you will depart for Bujumbura. You have chosen the person you most like to be accompanied on this pleasure trip, and she goes by your side. You have no problem at this time, either objectively or subjectively.

 

Flying up eleven thousand meters

It is night. Summer night. After dinner, you hear that you fly at 11 km high and those things. Your companion and you push the button on the left and the seat becomes obtuse angle: to dream... You fly from north to south. At 7am, it landed at “the safest international airport in the world” (there is no traffic). You are already in the heart of Africa. Do not be afraid, blacks are not as ugly as in ORZOWEI. Besides, you also have white friends who have been kind enough to go out and wait for you. That, yes: do not forget that you are in one of the poorest countries in the world, according to the capitalist modules. You are not precisely in Lourdes, nor in Amsterdam, nor in Picadilly Circus.

 

What is natural is to go barefoot!

You immediately assaulted your friends in Burundi, who, by the way, they already know the answers by heart:

—Look, and are they barefoot? —you protest.

—The abnormal thing is to go footwear.

—But do not they really have the money for some espadrilles? —you fight back.

—Well, they do not need it much either. Here there is no ice, it is almost always summer, skin is accustomed. When they play soccer, most take off their shoes, play more at ease.

—Heavens!

 

You are going to leave the capital soon. That, yes, yours friends they have led you to visit the central market. What has impressed you most is the sale of meat, wrapped in clouds of flies.

 

—But how do they not denounce that? —you continue to hallucinate.

—To whom, to the Works Committee? —your friends replay jokingly.

—And you, do you eat that meat?

—No, of another similar —the missionary answers without looking.

—Fuck!

 

There are no towns

Little by little, you become aware in situ. Burundi is one of the only countries in the world that hardly has villages. Except for the capital and a few more concentrations, the Burundians live throughout the country: the house and the countryside form a unitary habitat. Food, Health and Education, three high-tension nightmares. If we do not count the doctors of the capital Bujumbura, in the interior of Burundi there is one doctor for every 87,000 inhabitants. Of course, they really do not need doctors, what would a doctor do here? If the houses remain as they are, the bronco-solvent is like gargling. If they continue to drink the water without boiling, no one stops the worms. If the facial angle does not change, the injections will tickle. And also, if the few who have a diploma, are dedicated to fuck their neighbor, you will tell me…

 

You come from Europe

Yes, yes, from Europe, even if you live in Logroño. And the average European is not a fatalist like the average African.

—Well, but FAO, WHO, UNESCO... they know this!

—Yes, and what else? —your 'African' friends answered you nonchalantly.

—Well, I recently read that Africa is the continent of the future.

—Of the future, for whom? —Ironically they.

 

You already smell a rat with so much divergent response and you want to tropicalize and not question more. But at that moment, your friends, those of Burundi, become Africans for real:

 

—Well, after all, this society is coherent, and it is not so catastrophic. The vast majority of the population is in good health. There are impressive blacks, men and women. There are no myocardial infarctions. They do not have light in the houses, but they are not going to read. There is no television, and better there is not, what a dictatorship! There are almost no road accidents…

—There are no cars! —you seize the moment.

—No, there are no roads. Some car, yes there is.

—Of course —you nod— well thinking, our civilization is not the only one that can exist.

 

The Burundians automatically change band:

 

—But I'm staying with Europe, huh?

—Because you're European —you knock.

—Yes, but the Africans do not stay with Africa.

—Well, you've already thought about this a lot —you conclude.

—We have no other choice!

 

Another year, to the Hawaiian Islands!

And after two weeks in Burundi, you begin to orbit. Just the moment you have to go. This is life. Of course, better to go, because nothing is done here already. Dream is over. It turns out that there are the same clues as in Europe, but with hundreds of years of delay and imports of coca cola. The rich get richer. And the poor, very submissive them. This was not as exotic as it seemed. I have not even seen a black tattooed man. And there are also bad blacks. Oh, what a mess, mother. Next year, to the Hawaiian Islands!”. March 19, 1980.

 

 

  • THANK YOU FOR THE TONE OF YOUR LETTER

Letter I to Don Victorio Oliver. Textual selections.

March 22, 1980.

 

 

Dear Don Victorio:

We received your letter of March 2 and we answer immediately. Thank you, first of all, for the tone of your letter. We really see love in your words. You have not bothered us at all and we believe that, in fact, there can be a genuine and perennial dialogue among Christians, in spite of all the pluralisms.

 

On the other hand, if we could not make people suffer, you can be sure that you would have been the first to be saved. Also my parents are suffering, and Roberto's, and many other friends or relatives who do not understand how we can talk to the Pope of you (as my mother says) or other similar things.

 

Without the remotest spirit of controversy, but of dialogue, we also add our point of view, our way of seeing things. Or, at least, mine, since Roberto also writes to you separately (his mother tells him that he has time to write to the Pope and not home).

 

You believe that we have gone further than we should, that we must correct otherwise. I ask myself, Don Victorio (and I speak with the heart in my hand), if the actions of the strong are measured with the same magnifying glass as those of the weak ones. When the Vatican acts by its power and is wrong, surely you do not write a letter to them. Neither the Episcopal Conference, either. Not a group of bishops, either. And yet you know they are wrong. And if not, how blind you all are! And if it is true that you and they correct yourselves, how little attention they give you!

 

In secret, in fraternal correction, we must correct who is the same as you, not who despises mutual equality. And do not tell me that if I write a letter to John Paul II in intimate terms, he heed me, because I do not believe it. Neither he nor those who rule in the Vatican. Forgive: I am very bad, or I have stopped being naive. The historical experience (interpreted by me, of course) gives us a very clear constant: the one who commands never changes with the advice of those who are below.

 

If I did not feel very strongly 'church', I would not complicate my life with that letter, you can be sure. But when I, with Roberto, have complicated our lives with this letter (and with other things, because it is not the first thing we do, nor the last thing), you can understand that, in case we are not crazy, something serious we carry within with respect to the Gospel of Jesus of Nazareth.

 

I do not know why Power (do not get angry, it's not for you) is always so afraid of public opinion. Why can the Pope use the public opinion when he wants and I do not? Why? He employs millions, and we have employed 9,000 pesetas (54 EUR) to complicate our lives (all we can get is lose).

 

Do you think we can afford us the luxury of a ‘fraternal correction’? Fraternity comes from frater, but the Pope is more than a brother of mine, and the Vatican is more than my father. If I listened to them, I could not be a missionary, because I would have to go in cassock if possible and with the prayer book in my hand.

 

Good thing we have in reference to Jesus of Nazareth and his Holy Spirit. And that's why I mess with the Vatican. Do you think I'm going to mess with the Director of my Company if it was not for that? I would be very “fumao” (stoned), as they say out there. Among other reasons, because I can be unemployed... But yes, I make it, and very comfortable, because I believe that I defend a reasonable and proper cause of faith.

 

As for the repercussions, do not worry, that many publications will not get it out, because the Vatican is stronger than it seems. As for the mode (in secret), that is between equals. The fort speaks through the loudspeakers. And the weak, they do with pamphlets and graffiti. When the weak attacks the strong, he is corrected immediately, the magnifying glass is applied. When the strong says the biggest barbarities (and forgive the security with which I speak: maybe I'm wrong and my words will disappear as an anecdote), he will soon be excused, appear adhesions, official communications, just in case... It is always easier to support the powerful. By the way, I have never seen in the Press releases of the Spanish Episcopal Conference any more than adherence to the Vatican.

 

By last, in a way, I would wish I was not sure. At least, I would not complicate my life. There is no need to fear if I am wrong. What I am sure of is that the Gospel will continue even if I am mistaken, for the Spirit has always spoken “in all times and situations”, as the Letter to the Hebrews says. [1]

 

We talked a bit. Yes, it seems to me dialogue, because I know you listen. You see, it has been our doing. We have not discussed it with anyone: only with God, from our sin and our weakness. A hug. March 22, 1980.

 

 

 

[1] Hebrews 1: 1-2.

 

 

  • THIS IS GETTING COMPLICATED

Letter II to Don Victorio Oliver. Textual selections.

March 22, 1980.

 

 

As for the latest events in Nyangwa, which Roberto mentions, it is not easy to explain in a letter to one who does not know very closely what this is. But I'm going to try.

 

Here, as everywhere, there are caciques (local boss). They are intelligent, like us or more. There is no reason to believe that blacks, poor blacks, are subnormal. Some of these Nyangwa chiefs have been in Russia, which I have not done. I mean with this that they know how to put fear in people and manipulate opinion. Nyangwa is a region of chieftains. From here come many political cadres of the country. The current President, the current Chief of Staff, the current Minister of Education, and many others. This does not mean that all are against us, because it is not true: only some.

 

Lately, seeing their inability to integrate the mission for their interests (they see us more as ‘whites with money’ than as Christians who bring a message), they have tried to show that they are also superior to the Missionaries. Alfredo will be able to tell you scenes of: not wanting to pay the gas received on the mission, to require a loan (which they do not pay later), a jerrycan or a thousand other things.

 

And if you tell them (with very good words, that, yes) that “I am sorry, but that I can not do it”, they accuse you saying: “then, to what you have come?”… If you do not help them, “you are against the progress of the country” (= the country is themselves)... You are reading this in 3 minutes, and I tell you things from 3 years.

 

One day, while Alfredo was still here, they called us to the Party meeting to use us. If we did not go, they would say that “we did not want to collaborate”. If we went, they would measure our words. We went and talked as they had not planned. Alfredo will tell you.

 

Another day, they stole from us the new microscope, gift from Italy, 150,000 pesetas (902 EUR), which boycotted the dispensary at 60%. After notifying the authorities, the judge presented us as defendants in a public trial: they had two suspected thieves there and we (the judge said) “had accused them without evidence”. I told him to measure his words, that we had not accused anyone, we had only reported that the microscope had been stolen.

 

Total, he summoned me to another trial. We reply that ‘as foreigners called to collaborate with Archbishop Makarakiza, we would not attend their jurisdiction without an express mandate from the Archbishop’. This letter worked, Makarakiza applauded it and the judge's superiors told him not to be such a fool.

 

Another day, we had another trial in Bisoro, against two teachers. A teacher of the State here charges eight times the salary of a worker. In addition, he receives 600 FBu per month for accommodation (4 EUR, that is 60% of a worker's montly salary). They occupied the parish house for a year and then refused to pay, with the consequent cockiness in front of the parish people. After many adventures, we won the trial: but have you seen the money?

 

Another day, and so on three times, the judge who has gone through Nyangwa has not wanted to pay for his accommodation in a parish house, boasting everywhere that he laughs at whites.

 

Another day, the Director of the Public School of Bisoro begins to cut trees from the parish to their advantage, because “he does not give a fuck about”… The Authorities consent to it, the Archbishop is silent, and the bad ones are us.

 

Another day, the local boss in Nyangwa send a string of written lies to the Minister and the Governor. We sent another report. Solution: we are summoned to an improvised meeting. In the car of diocesan Administrator (who is originally from Nyangwa), they accompany him also Vicar of Pastoral, the State Administrator and the Provincial Inspector of Schools, who is one of the 48 members of the Central Committee of the Party. Alfredo knows everyone and will explain it to you.

 

The answer is already negotiated by them alone: they give local bosses all these things they ask for. The Vicar of Pastoral delegates his decision (in front of us) to the State Administrator (!). The meeting, only in Kirundi, lasted three hours. As usual, we thanked everyone for the work done and added: “If this decision is maintained, this one and I —Roberto and Pedro— we will leave Nyangwa after Easter” (this meeting was held on February 28).

 

Makarakiza is a good person, but only that. For the conflict is null, and always gives reason to the strongest: in this case, to the state and to the local boss. We are tired, but not so much as to return to Spain. We have had good training and we are very happy to have done what we have done.

 

I was also with the new Governor of Gitega (very kind). But he will do nothing when Makarakiza wants to get rid of us. Our letter to the Pope has come to him very well. But, with letter or without letter, the conflict would have arrived some day. Now, allow me a little reflection.

 

When we give value judgments about the role of the native Hierarchy before the State, we do not make it for being ‘anti-establishment’ or foolish protagonisms, but because we have data. And when we do not give the idyllic and namby-pamby paternalistic version of the “poor blacks”, we have data. The third world is not catastrophic just because there are people who are dying of hunger, but because of the struggle of the Power against the people. And this is political struggle from the Gospel. Some have to do it, and so must we. Any “religious presentation” of the third world is tendentious.

 

Makarakiza will send you his own version. Ours already have you. I have only tried to explain it in improvised sheets, in the light of two candles. For several hours the Barundis have been sleeping. My bed is better, but it will cost me more sleep.

 

Well, Don Victorio, thank you for everything, and also because I can tell you things this way, red hot. A hug”. March 22, 1980

 

  • NYANGWA, LAST MINUTE

Letter III to Don Victorio Oliver. Text selections.

March 22, 1980.

 

 

Once the envelope was ready to send it to you, we get a letter from Bududira, the bishop of Bururi. As a result, we can continue in Burundi:

 

Dear priests of Nyangwa,

Yesterday afternoon, March 18, I had the visit of one of you. I am glad that you have come to expose me your difficulties. After reflecting and consulting [...], I would ask the following:

 

1. A letter from the Bishop of your diocese of origin...

2. Commit to the diocese for at least three years.

 

If both conditions are fulfilled, the doors of the diocese of Bururi are totally open to you.

Fraternally. Bernard Bududira, bishop of Bururi.

 

With this letter and our previous decision to remain, if necessary, another three years in Burundi, I have gone to Makarakiza and I received from him this note in French, the copy of which I send to you (I made it myself at his machine while he dictated, with old carbonless paper, as it is already seen).

 

Don Pedro asks me for a note to tell you that I am not opposed to you accepting them in the diocese of Bururi. Indeed, D. Pedro and D. Roberto will leave the Archdiocese of Gitega next 6th of april. I do not see any inconvenience to receive them provisionally in the diocese of Bururi, awaiting agreement of the bishop of Tarazona. My best greetings. Signed, André Makarakiza”.

 

These next days, Don Victorio, will be important. The Christians of Nyangwa know nothing, for Makarakiza has told us, and we have accepted, not to publish anything. But he is afraid to show his face. Last Sunday, at the end of the first mass in Nyangwa (I was in a branch), a gentleman came to the micro to say that “whoever wants the missionaries to leave, raise their hand”. Nobody raised it, of course. Roberto, immediately, said that it was better to take things slowly and quietly to speak outside the church those who would like; that we would obey, in any case, the decision of the Archbishop.

 

After the mass, the Party representative, NKÉBERO, gathered all the people outside, next to the church. He gave them a harangue and Roberto was not there, but they called him. When Roberto arrived, people began to applaud him. He told me later, joking, that since he was a boy, when he won a race in Zaragoza and came out in the newspaper Amanecer (Dawn), they had never applauded him so much.

 

Roberto thanked them all in a few words and told them that the important thing was to pray and that “this afternoon itself we go to Gitega to speak with Monsignor”, that all maintained the calm and the harmony. But the Party representative was not happy about that, but asked again what they wanted in front of Roberto (“so you can see for yourself”, he said): “Give the old church to the missionaries and stay in Nyangwa, or give it to school children and the missionaries leave Nyangwa”.

 

Not one person dared to say that the missionaries left. Before Roberto arrived, there were people who dared to insult BUTUNAGU: Are you going to sell your cows to make schools?(many of his cows were stolen from people during the 1972 shootings). After the meeting, with much fear, BUTUNAGU came to Roberto to say: ‘Tuzokwumvikana, tuzokwumvikana, patiri!’ (We will manage, father!).

 

After this meeting, there were two more, Consumer Cooperative and Parish Council. Both councils wrote to Makarakiza, Kadogo and Tuhabonye, asking them to defend the missionaries, because BUTUNAGU and NIZIGAMA (the Director of Public Schools) had bullied parents of pupils.

 

By the way, as Alfredo will comment with you, NIZIGAMA violated Esther, the native girl coordinator of the Mission Promotion Center. He did it threatening her and in her own house. Esther has told Teresa that it is better not to report it (they are afraid) and that ‘she will never marry that tiparraco’. She is pregnant and demoralized.

 

People ask us if Monsignor have read the letter. We say yes, but calm down, that Monsignor has reasons to do what he does, that Monsignor will inform them of what is when he sees fit.

 

If you and the bishops of Aragon want a more serious report, we can do it too (later, not now). But if you plan to stay with Nyangwa as if nothing had happened, I would not look good at all. I speak to you in my personal name. Roberto is in branch. You see, we are affected.

 

Guido and Ana, the Italian couple, have received a telegram from their Lay Organization to go to Rumeza and wait for a link. I do not think they will return here, because there is no stability or security to be defended in case of conflict. PEDRO. March 22, 1980.

 

 

  • LETTER from MAKARAKIZA to BUDUDIRA.

Textual Quotes. March 31, 1980.

 

I have sent Tuhabonye and Canisius priests to Nyangwa for the economic review of parochial accounts with D. Roberto and D. Pedro. They have been kindly received and given clear and undisguised accounts [...]. On the other hand, the priests Tuhabonye and Canisius have received from the people of Nyangwa very favorable testimonies to Don Roberto and Don Pedro, who have continued their ministry correctly until the last days of their stay in Nyangwa.

 

They have also noticed that the majority of the population is angry to see these two missionaries leave. All this serves the honor of these two priests, who have always inspired a sincere affection for me, even if we have had divergent views on this or that pastoral attitude. For all these reasons, I must express my complete gratitude to them.

 

Monsignor Kadogo will be in Nyangwa on Holy Saturday and Easter Day for pastoral relief, and these two missionaries will be free to leave quietly.

 

I am afraid that they will be expelled soon from the country, although they have done nothing against him to deserve this measure […] It would even be appropriate, I think, to suggest them a few months of holidays in Europe”. March 31, 1980.

1980 March: Team Nyangwa, last photo

 

  • WE SAY GOODBYE TO

THE POPULATION OF NYANGWA  [1]

  Whole and literal content. April 03, 1980.

 

 

Dear brothers:

In these days, some of you have asked us the answer to the letter written to the Archbishop, referring to the old church. Today we give you the answer. A few days ago, we had a meeting with Monsignor Makarakiza, with Kadogo and Tuhabonye. The answer is this: the old church will be for schools. Therefore, we, the missionaries, will leave immediately after the day of Easter. For our part, we want to tell you something that we are obliged in all conscience to manifest, so that you do not forget it:

 

1. We will remember all of you for your hospitality and your affection. The people of Nyangwa Parish have behaved well with us. We thank you for all that you have taught and helped us, in joys and difficulties.

 

2. We want you to accept the decision taken as adult men. We want peace and concord, to live always among you and that the resentments disappear. We do not hold any grudges against anyone because we are Christians. But this does not mean that we are blind. The truth must be said, with love, but with clarity. Jesus told us: “The truth shall make you free”.

 

3. We leave Nyangwa because we can not be toys of a few people. [2]

 

4. Now it is no use to get angry: it is time to reflect, to maintain harmony, to pray to maintain faith and strength with works worthy of Christians. Jesus told us: “They will know you through your works”.

 

5. We are not going to Europe. We will continue to work on another mission in Burundi, because we love the Barundi and the Barundi love us.

 

6. We ask you to stop lamenting. Things can not be fixed by talking a lot. They are arranged with love, truth and unity ahead. Therefore, we ask you to receive with kindness and affection the priests, our brothers, to succeed us. We also thank the Archbishop because he has listened to us in all that has been necessary and because he has agreed to send you other priests immediately.

 

7. Finally, we say to you, on behalf of Mr. GUIDO and his wife ANA, that they are very grateful for the way you lived together at work during the time they have been with you. They are grateful to have been able to bid you farewell.

 

8. We will always remember and pray for you, wherever we are. And we ask you to do the same and to pray for us. Thank you very much. The priests of Nyangwa. [3]  April 03, 1980.

 

 

 

[1] This text was read in Kirundi in Nyangwa-central and in its eight branches, in celebration of Holy Thursday. We translated it to Kirundi with a catechist different from the usual one (head of catechists), not because of distrust in him, but to avoid leakage because he was more “harassed”. In each of the eight branches there is permanently a Catechist in charge of supplying us missionaries. For the acts of church, he dresses a white alb and rebuilds the Eucharist, except consecration, with the same liturgical texts. He gives communion and also does a homily, gives the notices and coordinates the activities.

 

Catechists have been the basis of African Christianity. To this Sunday or festive Act, people call it “mass”, as if it were celebrated by a priest: “Where two or three are gathered in my name, there I am in the midst of them” —Jesus had said (Matthew 18:20). When I wrote the first version of this footnote (June 2007), Cardinal Rouco, archbishop of Madrid, had just closed the parish of San Carlos Borromeo, attended by priests of recognized humanitarian trajectory; among other reasons, because “they did not follow the liturgical canons”. It is clear that the official European church has ceased to be a missionary.

 

[2] In Kirundi: Tudashóbora kuba ibikinisho vy’abantu bamwe bamwe”.

 

 

[3] In Kirundi: Ni twebwe, abapatiri b’i Nyangwa”.

 

 

  • BUDUDIRA welcomes us and writes to TARAZONA.

Textual Quotes. April 09, 1980.

 

 

As the priests Roberto and Pedro have already written to you, they arrived in my diocese on Easter Monday, April 7. According to the positive and laudatory report of Monsignor Makarakiza, I have received the priests as brothers and worthy missionaries. Yesterday, all the African priests of my diocese received them in Butwe. Bernard Bududira”. April 09, 1980.

 

 

  • Letter from BUDUDIRA to MAKARAKIZA. [1]

Textual Quotes. April 09, 1980.

 

 

I have noted with satisfaction and well-being the priestly attitude of the missionaries Roberto and Pedro. As for the esteem enjoyed by the people of Nyangwa, it has been something I have known for a long time, but also by the inhabitants of Butwe, Rumeza and of Mugamba. That is why I have advised them to stay in the same region [...].

 

Allow me, Monsignor, to convey to you, in all sincerity, my opinion on the last suggestion of your letter […] If for the priests-missionaries who leave a diocese, the phantom of an unjustified expulsion is raised, we may also fear, and complacently bless or tacitly approve the ban on the Burundian priests, sanctioned with penalties by the local authorities, to move from one diocese to another for reasons of conscience or personal convenience. And this, God forbid!

 

I am not willing to practice the policy of the Tripartite in the bosom of the Church... History and the Gospel would judge us without finding a reason logically valid.

 

I am even pleased to underline the paragraph “especially in the diocese of Bururi”. If this is not a distraction or a blackmail effect, you would have to allow myself to say —salva amicitia et reverentia— that you make a very opportunistic and very little global analysis of the current situation of the Church in Burundi. You will excuse me, Monsignor, for speaking to you clearly. The sweet and semi-diplomatic style is not my strong point.

 

Please add, Monsignor, my fraternal greetings and the expression of my sincere union with the cause of the Gospel in Burundi. Bernard Bududira, [2] Bishop of Bururi. April 09, 1980.

 

 

 

[1] BUDUDIRA, Bishop of Bururi, sent a Copy for Information of this letter, in this order, to: 1) “D. Roberto and D. Pedro”, 2) “Monsignor Kadogo” and 3) “Pierre Tuhabonye”. KADOGO was Vicar of Pastoral. TUHABONYE was Economic Administrator of the Archdiocese of Gitega and exerted diplomatic functions with the Government. He was originally from our Nyangwa parish, where he was very well known.

 

[2] Bernard BUDUDIRA (1934-2005) was a qualified Burundian and committed to his country. He was a man of action and reflection, in whose spirit there was a clear purpose: integral development and justice. He was Catholic priest in 1963 and bishop in 1973, at 38 years. He studied Catechesis in Brussels (1964) and Law in Rome (1964-1967). He spoke Kirundi, French, English, Italian and Spanish. Very resolute and close, with a sense of humor and balance, despite the systematic persecution and threats he suffered for much of his life. Among other activities, he was Rector of the Bujumbura Seminary (1968-1970), Vicar General of Bururi (1968-1973), Professor of the African Institute of Butare-Rwanda (1969-1980), Bishop of Bururi since 1973 and President of the Catholic Episcopal Conference of Burundi (1989-1997). He died in Rome (Italy) on Saturday 19 November 2005. See www.ninde.org/article.php3?id_article=92

 

 

  • Letter from Roberto and Pedro to TARAZONA.

Textual Quotes. April 12, 1980.

 

 

Dear Don Victorio:

We are already in the new parish. We enclose photocopies of all the letters and documents of the last days. In Gitega there is already another bishop hoping to replace Makarakiza. He's called RUHUNA. Our bishop of Bururi is called BUDUDIRA, he is 45 years old. He was ordained a priest in 1963 and a bishop in 1973. He studied pastoral and catechism in Brussels (1964) and Canon Law in Rome (1964-67). He was also Rector of the Seminary of Bujumbura and Vicar General of Bururi (1968-73). We are grateful to him for having acted freely and effectively. And above all, because he does not walk in half words. You see, things are getting better. A big hug. Roberto and Pedro. Butwe, April 12, 1980.

 

  • “Much appreciated fathers Roberto and Pedro: I have received your letter and I have commented on it several times. I am an editorialist of Radio Santa Rosa of Lima, Peru. [1]  [...] The times I was in Africa  I enjoyed contact with other cultures and I hope to return someday to that beautiful continent. A fraternal greeting from CARMEN. April 15, 1980".

 

  • “Dear Marisa: You will be surprised that suddenly I write you such a long letter… Since the expulsions of June-79, things are not as before in Burundi. We are in Butwe, next to Nyangwa, but provisionally. This has humiliated those of the archbishopric of Gitega and are doing what is possible for the Government to expel us. [2]  In Nyangwa, they are also making us bad press. Kadogo, the Pastoral Vicar, ordered the boys make a list of "things in the parish that these priests have taken" (ha, ha). They also want our van, wich we have taken to Butwe. The also wanted more money, even though we have left more than 100,000 FBu in favor (601 EUR). [3]

 

“When we came to Nyangwa, the catechists had not received their salary for several months and there was a deficit of 300,000 FBu (1,803 EUR). We have left an equipped mission, but they have no qualms about making us pass as thieves now. Also last week was the Governor of Gitega, led by Tuhabonye, doing a survey about us. Tuhabonye dared to say to the lay couple: “This is something of Roberto and Pedro, but the diocese of Tarazona will continue to help Nyangwa, it is the Contract”. Never as in recent weeks have they been so interested in their own people”. Butwe, April 18, 1980

 

At this precise moment, on the morning of April 19, 1980, we received the Decree of Expulsion. A Burundian government official came to Butwe. Perhaps Bududira, bishop of Bururi, had already been confirmed, because he was with us at the time. He was respectful to our reaction and saw that we accepted the political decision with serenity, but with explicit repugnance to the procedure.

 

We had to sign the acknowledgment of receipt and leave the country in 48 hours. I put with my signature: “Je considère fausses et injustifiées les raisons de mon expulsion”. [4]

 

At nightfall, incognito, Roberto and I went to Nyangwa to say goodbye to the sisters and the native mission staff (boys and night guard of the consumer cooperative). To go unnoticed in a country with very few vehicles in the interior, we do not move in our well-known Nyangwa van, but in another discreet Butwe vehicle.

 

We returned the same night to Butwe and the next day we left for the capital Bujumbura. Before, we got rid of some “intimate” memories. For example, my guitar, with which I entered Africa via Kinshasa, I gave it to a Rwandan religious sister in Butwe: “I am a foreigner here, but in a worse situation than you are” —she had told me one day.

 

The Expulsion Decree was individualized, but the motives were identical. As shown in the photocopy, the fourth “reason” for our expulsion from Burundi is our Letter to John Paul II, which, as we have already said, was not sent to anyone in Burundi: no physical person, no collective, no publication, nor institution.

 

In addition, interestingly, the editor wrote “Pape Paul VI”, which had already died in 1978, a year and a half before. It is another symbolic anecdote about African institutional speed. Someone later added by hand a “Jean”, and a stroke over “V” to fix it. I include the two photocopies in French [5], but I translate the most significant paragraphs.

 

 

 

[1] See the date March 15, 1980 in this same book: Diario LA CRÓNICA.

 

 

[2] Textual extracts from a letter to Marisa, a former nun religious of Ntita, a mission led by Asturians, who were our “teachers” when we arrived in Burundi. Ntita was the nearest Spanish mission to Nyangwa, with more experience in infrastructure and services. They also had a hospital and a medical doctor. In addition, Marisa was part of the half-dozen Spaniards who had we coincided in the initial course of Kirundi, 1976-77 (four months). Marisa had changed destiny and was now in BIRUYI (Rwanda).

 

 

[3] This sum was equivalent to about 100 monthly wages of an average worker (about 1,000 FBu per month). To orientate, I transfer any amount to euros EUR (similar to US dollars $). Despite all that, today's euros have nothing to do with the purchasing power of 40 years ago (1975 to 1980).

 

 

[4] “I consider the reasons for my expulsion false and unjustified”.

 

 

[5] View the entire French original in contiguous pages.

 

 

  • THE GOVERNMENT OF BURUNDI EXPELS US.

Textual Excerpts. April 19, 1980.

 

 

—Taking into account that Mr. PEDRO MENDOZA, a missionary in Nyangwa, has challenged both administrative and ecclesiastical authorities, refusing to transform a local into school classes;

 

—Taking into account that the parents of students, who have built the place themselves, have the right to pronounce on the use of the latter and that this missionary can not, on its own, determine its use without the opinion of parents;

 

—Taking into account that the attitude of Mr. PEDRO MENDOZA in this matter reflects a spirit of sabotage with regard to the Government's policy on education;

 

— Taking into account also that the statements he addressed to the Holy Father Pope Paul VI (sic) constitute a lack of consideration and are even insulting to his Holiness, [1]

 

HAS DECIDED AS FOLLOWS:

 

Article 1. Mr. PEDRO MENDOZA is expelled from Burundi, where he is declared undesirable.

 

Article 2. The person concerned must leave Burundi within 48 hours after receiving the present decision to the country of his choice.

 

Article 3. The Director of Immigration-Emigration is responsible for the implementation of this decision, which shall enter into force immediately.

In Bujumbura, April 17, 1980.

Signed, NZOHABONAYO Sylvère, Colonel.

 

Expulsion Decree, received at Butwe: April 19, 1980.

_______________________________________________________________________________

 

 

  • NOTIFICATION

Textual Excerpts. April 19, 1980.

 

 

In the attached NOTIFICATION sheet —Procès verbal de notification d'indésirabilité—, the introductory paragraph is purely bureaucratic and obviously not fulfilled, because: a) we were not in Bujumbura when we received the notification, b) nor the Director of Immigration spoke to me personally, c) This did not happen on April 17. It says in this way:

 

“In the year nineteen hundred and eighty, on the seventeenth of April, by Our Part, NKINARUDOBEYE François, Director of Immigration, meeting in Bujumbura and speaking to himself, we have notified Mr. MENDOZA Pedro, son of VICENTE and MARÍA, Born in CETINA on September 25, 1948, of Spanish nationality, exercising the profession of: Missionary,

 

“Under articles 10, 11 and 16 of the Immigration Act in Burundi, and that, owing to decision No. 521/S.I./ 110/80 of the General Administrator of Security-Immigration, he can not reside in Burundi, where it is declared undesirable, and that he must leave the National Territory before 48 hours to the country of his election”.

Director of Immigration, Signed, NKINARUDOBEYE François

 

Notification of Expulsion Decree, received at Butwe: April 19, 1980.

 

[1] In the original French: “Attendu qu’en outre les propos qu’il a adressés au Saint Père le Pape Paul VI (sic) manquent de déférence et sont même injurieux à l’égard de sa Saintété”,

 

 

  • “Une expulsion crapuleuse”. April 21, 1980.

 

This expression  [1]  was spontaneously said in our presence by the Provincial of the White Fathers in Burundi, in the PAR.  [2]  A few hours later we leaved the PAR and Burundi by plane. More than three decades have passed and, by circumstances of life and history, we have never returned. The White Fathers, specialists in Africa, knew the threads of events. The Provincial pronounced this phrase as soon as he saw us, without any explanation on our part.

 

Once in Madrid, we went to the newspaper El País and a journalist interviewed us. It was published in the back page on Tuesday, April 29, 1980. We also sent the same recipients of the Open Letter to John Paul II a copy of the Expulsion Decree (only in French) and another Explanatory sheet (only in Spanish) that I reproduce verbatim here below.

 

 

[1] Translation: “A crapulous expulsion” (indecent, full of baseness).

 

[2] Procure d’Accueil Religieux (PAR), the usual residence of many missionaries when we went down to Bujumbura.

 

 

  • TO THE RECIPIENTS

of the Open Letter to John Paul II.

April 24, 1980. Verbatim:

 

 

Dear Madam/Sir:

We suppose you would receive a collaboration entitled OPEN LETTER TO JOHN PAUL II. Such shipment was flown from BUJUMBURA (Burundi) on February 06, 1980. It was signed by two European Catholic priests, missionaries in this country. Now they no longer work there: they have been expelled by the Government of Burundi.

 

One of the reasons for the expulsion is curiously this open letter to John Paul II, which, by the way, was not sent to any publication or institution in Burundi. Attached are photocopies of the expulsion decree and we communicate to you the following clarifications:

 

1. There has been no judicial process, but only this decree of the

    Ministry of National Defense, with no possibility of appeal.

 

2. The first and fourth reasons include arguments regarding our intra-

    ecclesial relationships. On the other hand, the Government of the 2nd

    Republic of Burundi likes to define itself as ‘a lay and modern State’.

 

3. Since 1977, this Government:

 

    a) He closed down the Protestant and Catholic radio stations.

 

    b) He has banned the most popular publication in the country, edited

        in Kirundi by the Catholic Church: NDONGOZI.

 

   c) He has prohibited the Native Council, INAMA SAHWANYA,

       organized by the Catholic Church with appropriate methods for the

       Africanization of the Christian experience.

 

  d) He has arbitrarily expelled a hundred qualified Catholics and

      Protestants from Austria, Belgium, Canada, Spain, the United

      States, France, Italy, Mexico, Poland, Sweden, and Switzerland.

 

  e) He lies shamelessly in all press and radio campaigns to justify his

      arbitrary measures against Christianity and tries to reduce it to a by-

      product of the State, even when it comes to the onomic  and

      cultural progress of the people.

 

4) The 2nd and 3rd reasons contain false statements. We clarify the

     following:

 

    a) The place mentioned was an old church owned and built by

        Christians.

 

   b) The National School in Burundi is insufficient and discriminatory.

       Serves the elite in Power.

 

   c) This place was destined, according to the immense majority of the

       Christians, to a School of Crafts:

 

—for young people who have not been able to access the National School of Primary Education, and also,

 

—for those who, having done the Primary Education, can not pass to Secondary School. In one word,

 

—WORK-PAID JOBS FOR UNEMPLOYED YOUTH.

 

   d) The ruling elite acted against the Common Good, wanting to

       integrate and use the missionaries for their interests.

 

5) Despite the mistakes of the 2nd Republic of Burundi, we believe,

    however, that its leaders are more capable and coherent than those

    of other previous regimes.

 

6) By sending you this communication, we believe we will contribute,

    once again, to the promotion of a new human, and the realization of

   Human Rights in the world, and this time in BURUNDI. Thank you very

   much for your interest.

 

Signed, Roberto Miranda and Pedro Mendoza. April 24, 1980.

 

 

  • “Write to John Paul II. Trust, the Pope listens. It is time to speak to him. Write what you want to tell him. Our invitation is addressed to the generation of 18 to 30. This is going to be like a great OPEN LETTER TO THE CHURCH. Send the letter before April 24”.

 

The Vatican announces itself in the French Magazine LA VIE (facsimile below). April 24, 1980.

 

 

This page of LA VIE was sent to us from Nyangwa, with an obvious sense of humor and complicity, by our former religious sisters, of which one was French and received this magazine. The Pope then went to France and the Vatican might have been inspired by our Open Letter. If it was not macabre, it would be very funny.

______________________________________________________________

 

  • “Two Spanish priests, expelled from Burundi”.

Back cover of El País. Madrid, Tuesday April 29, 1980.

 

 

  • DO NOT COME BACK FROM BURUNDI.

Verbatim. May 02, 1980.

 

 

I have expected to find some response of someone more authorized than I to the letter that on Pope John Paul II appeared published in number 261 of ANDALÁN. The letter is signed by two priests of the mission in Burundi and I think that most of the readers will have been very sad. Young kids may have created some confusion.

 

A large number of Spaniards we are Catholics because we were born in a confessional society and we know that the Church is a perfect vertical society founded by Jesus Christ in this way. We do not know why, but he established it that way when he entrusted the mission to Peter. This enormously complicated Church is assisted by the Holy Spirit and, more important, God will be with her until the end of our days.

 

That some priests allow themselves to publish a letter saying that the leader of the Church should be chosen in the same way as a lendakari or an honorable, [1]  they show that they can only  be in Burundi, because here these priests we do nor need them. I have never seen a letter from a general director bad mouthing off his minister, but I am sure that in meetings and conversations he will have criticized and advised him. That is the way.  —A.L. Bravo, in the magazine ANDALÁN, number 267. Zaragoza, May 02 to 08, 1980.

 

  • “NYANGWA WAS SOMETHING OURS”.

The Bishop of Tarazona to his Diocesans. Mai 05, 1980.

Text selections:

 

Nyangwa, a rare name then, has become familiar to us. It was something of us. This story, for the time being, has broken down. It is the painful news that I have to tell you. The fact is unfortunate and unacceptable. It hurts us in truth and in the interior. We condemn.

 

I have read the expulsion order that affects Roberto and Pedro. I can honestly tell you that the causes of expulsion are neither entirely accurate nor are they above all convincing. A few days earlier, I had received a letter from Bishop Makarakiza. In his words there is a tear of recognition. It is necessary to live this situation to understand the cry of those poor [...]. We have broken the narrow circle of our horizon. We have been made aware of the contradiction and the cross. Victorio OLIVER, Bishop of Tarazona. May 5, 1980.

 

  • “WITH HEAD HIGH”

It’s Letter from MARIVÍ, Spanish missionary nun in Burundi.

Textual quotes. May 08, 1980.

 

 

Very dear Pedro and Roberto:

I have no words. I have heard versions so different that one becomes in a bad mood. Yes, handsome, I am with you, I have defended you whenever I have had occasion. Although many times I have had to keep quiet, I think silence has spoken on many occasions and the others have even felt humiliated. Well, my dear, you, to live and have a good time, okay? I do not think you have to blush for anything. On the contrary, go with head high good. Mariví, May 08, 1980.

 

The previous ones are a few reactions of which it was written record. But there were many more, of course. Meanwhile, we had returned to our rural diocese of Tarazona at the worst possible time. The popular euphoria of political transition had led to disenchantment. Polish pope Wojtyla had once again launched the yearning for a lost Imperial Church. The post-conciliar era was drifting toward pre-conciliarism. At the same time, Roberto and I, we were with our recent Open Letter to John Paul II behind our backs. Everyting against.

 

 

 

[1] Lendakari is the usual title assigned to the president of the Basque autonomous government. And Honorable, to the president of the Catalan autonomous government. In the Spain of 1980, the future “State of the Autonomies” is incipient, fought and sometimes despised. —Footnote for the English edition.

 

 

  • BURUNDI, FOUR HOURS

Diocesan, Presbyteral and Pastoral Council.

Calatayud, May 12, 1980.

 

 

In this context, there was a joint meeting of the Diocesan, Presbyterian and Pastoral Councils, in Calatayud, where I (in expectation of destiny), spent with my parents a few weeks. Roberto came from Zaragoza, where he also waited at his parents' house, in a similar situation.

 

The star theme of the meeting was Burundi, of course. Only this theme lasted four hours, most of the morning. It was not a “Military Council”, but we were clearly aware that they did not see us as first-hand informers or as war correspondents, but practically as “accused” or, in a way, “traitors” to the idyllic montage that some were prefabricating about the mission in central Africa at the cost of silencing our joint reports, as we counterattacked at the meeting.

 

The Diocesan Delegate of Missions, who had already visited Burundi (with a lot of cologne perfume, by the way) was a member of Opus Dei. But others were not of the Opus and neither knew of anything or they did not want to know.

 

Some fellow priests, external to the apparatus and critics with the official line, told us a few days later:

—“Why did you go to that meeting? Let them go to Burundi, if they are so worried”...

 

Nevertheless, we were not antisystem, but the other way around, what we wanted was for the system to work.

 

One of the questions was whether our Open Letter to John Paul II had been distorted by ANDALÁN, as some rumors put it:

—Not at all —we replied—, we have verified it and it is identical to the one we sent, they have not changed a single comma.

 

General silence… Another, that they were going to inform the diocese of what happened in Burundi, but were we going to send pamphlets? We looked at each other Roberto and I, and I said:

 

            —If the information is objective, no; But if it is not objective, of course we will send pamphlets.

            —Objective, objective, and what do you call objective? —someone protested.

 

Finally, we remind them:

 

—“We have not closed the Nyangwa mission; if any of you or the diocese wants to go, they will welcome you with open arms. We have only resigned in front of the archbishop, and we had already been admitted to another diocese, that is, that we wanted to continue in Burundi”.

 

Overall, someone drew this conclusion and expressed it as such:

 

—In short, that you got expulsion through your own hard work!

 

Roberto and I offered to make a brief summary of events for the information of the Clergy or of all people, “as the bishop or the Council chooses”. I transcribe below this informative summary as it left our hands, although we did not really verify the type of diffusion that they gave to him. Our minds were already tired for these filigrees, though we dissembled it.

 

At the end of the Burundi Agenda, Roberto and I thanked everyone for the work done and the interest shown (African protocol at the end of the meetings), and we left to breathe fresh air:

 

—They were very hard, were not they? —Roberto tells me.

—I still figured more —I said.

 

In fact, for Roberto it had to be harder, because he knew less of the priests present, since he later joined the diocese. But I knew them all from the age of 11, when I entered the Seminary. And they knew me. Some had been older classmates, trainers or teachers of mine. And to others I met them being already priest, since 1972, when I knew what positions or towns they had and how each one worked. [1]

 

 

[1] See here also year 1976: “A propósito de una estadística” (About a Statistic).

 

 

  • WHAT HAPPENED IN NYANGWA?

Information from Roberto and Pedro to the Diocesan Clergy.

Textual selections. May 12, 1980.

 

 

Dear companions:

As determined in the Presbyteral and Pastoral Council of May 12, 1980, we send you more explicit information about what happened in Burundi. We thought it best to wait for this meeting to do so.

 

GENERAL CONTEXT

In January 1975, Antonio, Alfredo and Roberto arrived in Burundi. On November 01, 1976, there was a coup d'etat: the 2nd Republic began. The first months began the first measures of force: expulsion of a group of foreign merchants. In April 1977, expulsion of all the Comboni missionaries and closure of the two Christian stations. At that moment, to the astonishment of the bishops, President BAGAZA wrote to Monsignor MAKARAKIZA: “You are not yet aware of the changes made to our country”.

 

However, during the rest of the years 77 and 78, nothing new happened that especially troubled the Churches. That is why, on the part of the Nyangwa team, there was no reason for alarmism either.

 

In any case, a leaflet of 50 pages was written, approved and made by each and every member of the team: Antonio, Alfredo, Roberto, Pedro (Aragonese), Matilde (Basque-Navarra), Teresa (Italian). Patricia (American). The originals, photos, etc., were deposited in the printing Prensa Aragonesa on December 07, 1978. We regret that it was not published, because there we warned about the danger of idealizing the mission in any sense.

 

From April-79, and in parallel to internal political problems, the Government prohibits meetings of Christians in the hills (Native Council). The missionaries pressed and supported the native Hierarchy to resist this decision. The bishops issued a joint declaration in all the churches of the country, which triggers a public campaign of the Government against the Church based on lies.

 

This campaign ends with the expulsion of 66 missionaries in June-1979. When they arrived in Brussels, they delivered a note to the press that, among other things, said: “The official reason for our expulsion is to attack State Security in gestures, attitudes and words. What gestures, what attitudes, what words? We ignore it”.

 

The diocese of Gitega, ours, has almost no missionaries expelled. What is interpreted, in general, as evidence of more submission to the Government by the Archbishopric.

 

A few months later, in October-1979, Alfredo returns to Spain definitively. In Nyangwa, there remain Roberto, Pedro, Matilde, Teresa (Italian), Madeleine (French), Secunda (Burundian), Guido and Ana, Italian married couple, with their small children (Rita and Samuele).

 

From the great expulsions and the anti-Church campaign, the elite gets brave against the missionaries and their conflicting attitudes are becoming more frequent. It is becoming more difficult to do a new project in the mission.

 

Certain influential families see that the mission is out of their hands, because it promotes more and more people indiscriminately. On the other hand, the people are very afraid in front of the elite. Only eight years ago, in 1972, the Tutsi elite murdered more than 150,000 skilled people of Hutus in Burundi, who today remain 86% of the population.

 

NYANGWA

In these circumstances, a local problem arises in Nyangwa, which was not the first, but the end of a chain of aggression with the silent complicity of the Archbishop of Gitega. The mission team decides to make a carpentry in the old church building: paid jobs for a sector of unemployed youth. However, some local boss want more national schools to be made for their children.

 

On February 28, 1980, the delegates of the Archbishop of Gitega and the State authorities come together in the car of the Treasurer of the diocese. They decide to give the old church to the elite against the opinion of the Nyangwa mission team.

 

At that moment, wich was already foreseen as possible, Roberto and Pedro say to all the attendees “We can not continue in Nyangwa at any price. We need our presence to have a certain dignity, a minimum quality. Therefore, if you do not change this decision before Easter Day, April 06, we will leave the parish in the hands of the Archbishop”.

 

On March 02, we explained to people the decision, in Nyangwa and branches. Two weeks later, March 16, there is an assembly of Christians headed by the official representative of the Party, in which, by acclamation (this is the word) give a vote of full confidence to the missionary team against the dominant interests, and write a letter to the Archbishop asking him to change the decision.

 

On March 16, in the afternoon, the Archbishop and his team, without taking into account the majority wishes of the population, confirm the decision of the Vicar. We, with the approval of them, entered into conversations with another diocese, BURURI. He accepts us with two conditions: a) that the Archbishop of Gitega sees no inconvenience, and  b) that is for 3 years, at least. Both conditions are met and we accepted. The new parish is called BUTWE.

 

After the fraternal information of the state of the parish Nyangwa to the priest Econome of the archdiocese, and a plea to the Christians to behave in love with our successors, on April 7, morning, we arrived in Butwe accompanied by the Italian couple and religious sisters of Nyangwa, and by the Vicar of Gitega, provisional substitute in Nyangwa. Twelve days later, on April 19, we received the expulsion order. On April the 21st, we left Burundi; and on the 22nd, we arrived in Madrid.

 

WHY WE HAVE ACTED SO

Anybody with common sense can figure that in three pages, we can not count FIVE years in Burundi. But that does not exempt us from making an effort to translate it, and also in a few words. The answer is the same that we gave to the people of Nyangwa to say goodbye: We leave Nyangwa because we CAN NOT BE TOYS OF A FEW. The people of Nyangwa understood it very well. We hope that in our own land we will also be understood.

 

That is to say, the missionary is not to be used: neither by the elite in the Power, nor by the Official Native Church nor by Europe. In our judgment, it did not make sense to bring the Bishopric of Tarazona into a problem that was so far and so clear to us. We had always enjoyed the vote of confidence of our diocese: there was no reason to doubt now.

 

For us, it was not a lack of respect, but the opposite: a proof of the dignity of our diocese, which we represented in some way in those circumstances. However, if the diocese does not agree with our decision, the solution is easy: send other priests to Nyangwa. [1]  In any case,  Nyangwa is still open. ROBERTO and PEDRO". May 12, 1980.

 

 

 

[1] Three decades later, neither Nyangwa nor any other mission in Burundi has been covered by missionaries from Tarazona or any other diocese in Aragon, although this question was raised by us explicitly and in writing from Burundi in May 1979: Letter to our Bishop of Tarazona (see here May 22, 1979). The subject has been treated several times by different bishops of Aragon, but without palpable results.

 

 

  • “I OFFER YOU INDEFINITE HOSPITALITY”

Letters from Peru. May 23, 1980.

 

 

“Dear Pedro and Roberto:

“I just read your expulsion in VIDA NUEVA. My first word is congratulations. I think of the Word of the Lord muzoba muhiriwe ('rejoice that day')... I have already begun the study of kechwa. Do not forget that when I was expelled, I had to go to Nyangwa to speak to the catechists”. Miguel Parets, former Majorcan missionary in Burundi. May 23, 1980.

 

The Majorcan Miguel Parets, for us Spaniards, was an institution in Burundi, where he had been for 14 years already. He spoke kirundi “like a black man”, they all said about him. He was kind, energetic, fast, close. In the coup d'etat of 1976, he was in favor, like most of the missionaries. He told us that, in areas of Hutus (where he worked), people seemed optimistic about change. Paradoxically, this same government expelled him.

 

On the day of his expulsion, some of us had lunch with him in Bujumbura and he told us with the plane ticket in his hand and a lot of humor:

 

—“This is not the first time I have the expulsion ticket in my hand, maybe it will be fixed”…

And I remember telling him (all laughing accomplices) something like this:

—“Do not be delirious and get it into your head, this time seems to be serious”.

 

As it turns out, he soon found us a destination in Peru. Next to his letter came that of José Luis, Bishop of Cajamarca, who offered us to direct his Seminary and I do not know how many other things. It was too bad that the offer came to us in a time of exhaustion and disappointment for the utopias, which were being so expensive for us… Our depressing moment and the exaggerated altitude (up to 4,000 meters) made us disregard the offer, although we responded them with the cordiality and gratitude they deserved. In Peru we were raffled; and in our Catholic Spain we were questioned: things of the dialectic...

 

 

  • “Our common friend Miguel Parets told me the virtues of both missionaries [...]. This diocese needs help and I offer you indefinite hospitality. The average height is 2,700 meters, down to 200 and up to 4,000”. Bishop of Cajamarca (Peru), May 23, 1980.

 

Meanwhile, the Aragonese publication ANDALÁN, which was very poorly seen in conservative and clerical media, asked us for an article about the pope's trip to Africa, held just then. Roberto no longer wanted more writings and left me the initiative. So I wrote it in a personal capacity.

 

I also had no desire for more protagonism, and we were also psychologically exhausted. But it seemed to me cowardly and inconsistent to say no, when they had been the only ones in the ordinary press who had published in full our Open Letter to John Paul II. So I accepted. And I do not feel sorry, because those things, if you do not write them in their hot moment, you may never write them. Here is the whole article, although I divide some long paragraphs into small ones, to make them more bearable in this visualistic and screened time.

 

 

  • THE VISIT OF

THE GREAT FATHER WHITE

Full and textual content.

Zaragoza (Aragón), ANDALÁN, June 06, 1980.

 

 

There are at least three Africa: Arabic, Black and White. The Pope has traveled through Black Africa: Zaire, Congo, Kenya, Ghana, Upper Volta, Ivory Coast. From all over the world it is well known that Africa, one tenth of the world's population, is the continent less evolved: “Africa has its feet in the Neolithic, head in the thermonuclear age, and the body manages as it can” (Dominique Dessanti)

 

It was not difficult for the Vatican to get applause through the magical man dressed in white, the Pope of Rome. When you ask a black schoolboy whether Jesus of Nazareth was white or black, he responds, without hesitation, that white:

 

—Why? —you screw him.

—Because it is seen in the photos (pictures).

 

 

The good, if white, twice good

In the Christmas of 1977, a Spanish missionary nun in Central Africa, with the intention of “inculturating”, removed from the cradle the white child-Jesus and placed a black child-Jesus. What would not be the disappointment of the children and mothers of the place to see a black occupying such a sacred post.

 

And it is that Jesus of Nazareth had to be white to be important. A black catechist told me one day that, in his first booklet-catechism, there was a question to memorize:

 

—“CAN A BLACK MAN BECOME A PRIEST?”

—“A black man can become a priest IF GOD WANTS IT” —was the answer.

 

The magic of the event

When, with Cartesian logic, the editorials, or even some international organization, discourage or lament that the Pope contributes, for example, to reinforcing Mobutu's dictatorship, they sometimes disparage a very important piece of political anthropology: that in Africa the State does not exist more than in the offices, and very few office’s workers, by the way.

 

Africa is something else: it is only today (tomorrow, God will say). It is the occasion, the chance, the vitalism. No horizon or rationalization. It's the phenomenon, the party. If a coup removes Mobutu tomorrow, the vast majority of Zaireans would not make any mental effort to applaud the following: Power has some magic and fatalism, even if it is called ‘Republic’.

 

Heaven is Europe

In this context, it was not difficult to foresee a success in Africa, although in Europe it goes unnoticed. Only 12% of Africans are Catholics, but the Pope of Rome represents more than a religious conception. He represents Europe, the god-progress, the mirage of happiness, luxury, the machine not to work, the miracle, the remedy to disease, the omnipotence of the white.

 

And for African minorities, the inferiority complex, the invader, the hate against the competitor, the powerful one who must be deceived and used. And to their inside, is the enemy, “the guilty of everything”. Black minorities do not reject white missionaries because they are the opium of the people, but because they go against their elitist interests.

 

The minorities

University students tend to be cleaner in their anti-white racism, but they also do not have comprehensive and coherent analyzes. In fact, the vast majority will flee from their land as a soul that leads the devil and will try to live in the capital: it is better to flee from misery than to face it. And if they have no choice, they will be incorporated to continue reinforcing the rural despotism.

 

The YA newspaper acknowledged that John Paul II's visit to the University of Kinshasa —7,000 students, of which about 3,000 attended the meeting— had been a mistake in the program: the meeting, preceded by a University-Government conflict, was “distant and cold”.

 

The minorities who created the independence were educated in Christian-run colleges and they soon forgot people. A large part of the native clergy still has a “printed species” that prompts them to devote themselves to the elite. The same thing happened with the first conversions: the clan chief was baptized and the tribe secured.

 

Today in Europe, this seems an attack. But in the context of 1880 or 1920 in Africa, it is sociologically serious and coherent. Even today it would be absurd to seek an individualized, rationalized awareness. Practically, there is not yet such thing as I THINK. The African is preferentially WE, because they have no philosophers in front of them, but proverbs and saying.

 

In Central Africa, outside the language and some customs, there is no cultural or artistic manifestation that is more than a hundred years old. No monuments, no temples, no symbols, no cosmogonies. The African is not very interested in how the world began or how it ends, but HOW TO LIVE TODAY.

 

Africa is rich

The uranium of Hiroshima was removed from Zaire. In world production, Africa accounts for 99% of diamonds, 81% of cobalt, 59% of gold, 40% of chromium, 36% of manganese, 32% of phosphates, 27% of copper... And in agriculture, 75% of all palm fruits, 65% palm oil, 65% cocoa, 58% fiber; 25% of peanuts, 15% of coffee...

 

The state, import luxury

However, it is the continent-child. In any case, preteen. For minorities, speaking ill of the white exploiters is a good reason to continue exploiting ‘our own, a pretext to make a fortune at the expense of a State copied from Europe and an Administration overflowed by so much paper and corrupted from so much disorder. You enter a public office and it is not uncommon to see piles of papers on the chairs, on the floor, and even your own passport, deposited for visa, under the table leg if any.

 

One day in Zaire, they had accumulated so much mail and letters that, in order to remove that overwhelming nightmare from the eyes, the officials set fire to it (sic). In Kigali, in 1979, near the large gasoline depots of the Rwandan capital, the soldiers made fire to warm up at night:

 

—But do not you see the sign PROHIBITED TO SMOKE? —increase the technician.

—Yes, but it does not say anything about getting warm —they argue.

 

Immediately before the visit of John Paul II, two heads of State have been married by the Church. And in 20 years of independence in Zaire, they had not found the time, until now, to asphalt 20 km from the airport to the capital. In Kenya, John Paul II spoke to white and black UN officials of “real economic independence and true freedom from any attempt at ideological domination”…

 

It does not matter, the Nairobi UN would organize the event well, but they will pay little attention to the Pope. As little attention as the clergy when hearing about celibacy or Christians about conjugal and monogamous modesty. Because not everyone is able to convince the Africans. They have some raincoats that spontaneously select, biologically, what goes with them and what does not.

 

Here in Europe there is a lot of naivety about it: “poor blacks, white foreigners are mentalising them, politicizing, Christianizing”... That's what some whites would want! But blacks will follow the one who gives the most. The great Nyerere of Tanzania once said in the United States: “Do not worry, we have not done as much as they say. What happens is that a European comes and asks 'in which house I am going to live'; and a Chinese comes and asks 'who I'm going to work with'… And that's why we have so many Chinese”.

 

A travel needed

The journey of a Pope for Black Africa was necessary. From the religious and political point of view. Another thing is that the Vatican is not in a position to walk the Pope as a citizen of the world and always do as Head of State: the opposite of the Anglican Primate, with whom he met, for the first time, in neutral field in Ghana.

 

African Christians, and non-Christians, have thanked it. One hundred years of missionaries is no joke. There is a lot of history and a lot of suffering behind the mission posts. The missions are a bit like our old monasteries: centers of culture and promotion of the environment, even without living the life of the people. The first missionaries did not put “three Hail Marys” of penance, but PLANT A TREE.

 

It is true that they have often been conservative institutions linked to the respective settlers. But it is also true that, after independence, the missionaries remained there, and the officials returned to France, Belgium, England and Portugal, or sought a house in the capital to neo-colonize. Then it became clearer that there were several races of whites.

 

Even today, UN officials, who feel generally disconnected from the black people, carry out many projects through the missionaries. Because the UN in Africa is a faithful reflection of the roll that the powerful have mounted: a face wash but with very high salaries. It is like the drum in the archilatine Masses of John Paul II: much noise and few nuts.

 

An African Council

In the Congo, the Pope publicly confirmed the peaceful coexistence and cooperation of the Catholic Church with that country's Marxist regime, although he insisted on the obstacle to ideological and practical materialism for religion… The Vatican knows very well that the Congo is not as Marxist country as it is painted. Nor any other country in the area. A white bishop had been in Burundi for 50 years. He was denied a visa back in 1978, because they attributed to him this phrase: “These are too silly to be Marxists”.

 

One of the most interesting proposals launched in public to John Paul II has been that of the President of the Bishops' Conference of Zaire (56 bishops), Monsignor KASEBA: an African council. It will not be the Vatican that pushes the idea, of course. But its realization would be a step forward in the analysis of African consciousness. And Christianity could play an important role, as it is already playing in Latin America.

Pedro Mendoza. ANDALÁN, June 06, 1980.

 

 

  • HANS KÜNG WRITES TO US.

Textual excerpts. June 09, 1980.

 

 

“Dear friends Roberto Miranda and Pedro Mendoza:

 

“I have received in abundance from all over the world the testimonies of your solidarity: about 6,000 letters and telegrams, not counting the numerous oral expressions... Thank you very much for the Open Letter to John Paul II (added by hand in Spanish)”  [1]  Closed in June-80 and Received on June 09, 1980.

 

 

 

[1] Verbatim: Gracias muchísimas para la Carta Abierta a Juan Pablo II”.

 

 

By way of farewell

 

After 1988, I have lived other decades. In 2008, I turned 60 years old. To express this second period of my existence from 40 onwards, I will need a few more years of perspective. But I can advance that I did not need any umbilical cord with my first identity. I have not missed the status or liturgy that surrounded my previous life.

 

My new experiences and studies have matured my principles of origin, but my basic criteria remain practically the same as I learned in the heat of evangelical utopia. I am still interested in the justice and freedom of all human beings at the same time. I am attracted to the truth from the front, against the bad sellers or manipulators. Despots, social climbers, ultra-legalists and liars are my natural enemies. I value many types of beauty and love, as well as ecology and cleanliness, scientific rigor and emotional communication, pluralism and order. Without discipline and without method, little progress is made.

 

Any ideological synthesis is circumstantial. I do not care if a person believes in God or not, if she defines herself idealistic or materialistic, right or left, but how she acts and who benefits. This intuition is, by the way, in the original nucleus of great historical achievements. “By their fruits you will know them” (Jesus of Nazareth) [1] and "praxis as a criterion of truth" (in Marx).[2]

 

With the lack of motivation and energy inherent in old age, I felt at some point the temptation to despise the memory of my own life. Over the years, we have sometimes minimized the usefulness or sense that our existence may have. And, as we have more vision of the whole, we accept that our destiny is death and anonymity, which will gradually be diluted in the universe. What happens after this ephemeral existence does not depend on us, nor are we able to foreshadow it.

 

But in the meantime, we can’t forget that we are responsible for our current “competencies”. Although I would make no significant contribution with this book, I felt compelled to try. And conversely, if with these pages I transmit some aspect useful for the future, I will feel satisfied.

 

I wish to the future generations a more creative and awakened existence of what was ours; a life more conscious, freer and, above all, more just.

 

Pedro Mendoza, year 2010

 

 

 

[1] Matthew 7:20, and Luke 6:43.

 

[2] Marx (1845): Theses on Feuerbach. It was published by Engels in 1888, after Marx's death.

See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tesis_sobre_Feuerbach:

Theory without practice is not theory, and practice without theory is not practice”.

 

See also http://www.geocities.com/jrme_chile/tesis_de_feuerbach.htm

 

 

PROPER NAMES MENTIONED

Onomastic and geographical references in

Alphabetical order, pages indicating

_______________________________________________________________

 

 

AUTHORS cited

If the proper name appears on consecutive pages, they go with a hyphen.

For example, it is 166-170 instead of 166, 167, 168, 169, 170.

 

 

 

AUTHORS cited                   Pages    

 

  1. Abaitua, Carlos............................... 67, 262
  2. Acts of the Apostles (Bible)............ 237
  3. Aguirre, José Maria........................ 221
  4. Amo, Antonio del............................ 249
  5. Amos (Bible).................................. 146
  6. Aristotle.......................................... 33
  7. Augustine of Tagaste..................... 33, 49
  8. Azaña, Manuel............................... 228
  9. Baden-Powell (St. Robert Smith)... 55
  10. Bandrés, Juan Maria...................... 220
  11. Beethoven, Ludwig van.................. 65, 239
  12. Bell, Alexander Gram..................... 25
  13. Blixen, Karen.................................. 286
  14. Bloch, Arthur.................................. 238
  15. Bloch, Ernst................................... 119
  16. Brecht, Bertolt................................ 222
  17. Camara, Helder............................. 55, 136
  18. Canals, Ramon.............................. 229
  19. Cantalapiedra, Ricardo.................. 222
  20. Cato the Elder................................ 230
  21. Cato the Younger........................... 230
  22. Celaya, Gabriel.............................. 216
  23. Cernuda, Luis................................. 236
  24. Cervantes, Miguel de..................... 78, 281
  25. Chesterton, Gilbert Keith............... 264
  26. Codina, Victor................................ 200
  27. Conrad, Joseph............................. 249
  28. Cunchillos, Jesús.......................... 8, 256-257, 260
  29. Descartes, René........................... 33, 46, 79-80, 156, 209
  30. Dessanti, Dominique.................... 184
  31. Dickens, Charles........................... 49
  32. Díez Alegría, José María.............. 104, 146, 208
  33. Diogenes of Sinope....................... 55
  34. Dyer, Wayne W............................. 248
  35. Dylan, Bob.................................... 131
  36. Ecclesiastes (Bible)....................... 76
  37. Einstein, Albert.............................. 260
  38. Engels, Friedrich........................... 309
  39. Equiza, Jesús................................ 67, 69
  40. Exodus (Bible).............................. 197
  41. Fermi, Fabrice.............................. 155
  42. Fernández Martos, José Mª.......... 216
  43. Feuerbach, Ludwig A.................... 74, 309
  44. Ford Coppola, Francis.................. 249
  45. Freixedo, Salvador........................ 233, 264
  46. Frémy, Dominique........................ 155
  47. Frémy Michèle.............................. 155
  48. Fromm, Erich................................ 141, 247
  49. Garaudy, Roger............................. 55, 216
  50. Gibson, Ian.................................... 227
  51. González Balado, José Luis......... 198
  52. Gonzalez-Carvajal........................ 198, 222
  53. Gracián, Baltasar.......................... 228
  54. Häring, Bernard............................. 69
  55. Hebrews (Bible)............................ 163
  56. Hegel, Georg W. F........................ 146
  57. Horace........................................... 221
  58. Ibañez Lacruz, Joaquín................. 19
  59. Ibáñez, Andrés............................... 67, 75
  60. Illich, Ivan...................................... 147
  61. Iniesta, Alberto.............................. 156, 206
  62. Insausti, Xavier.............................. 221
  63. Jeremiah (Bible)............................ 124, 146, 198
  64. John Evangelist (Bible).................. 14, 28, 47, 81
  65. Juan de Ávila (Almodóvar-C. Real)..... 237
  66. Kajman, Michel.............................. 157
  67. Kamwenubusa, Posper.................. 295-296, 298, 301
  68. Kant................................................ 221
  69. Kayoya, Michel.............................. 137
  70. Kiraranganya, Boniface................. 293-294
  71. Kuan-Tsu...................................... 101
  72. Küng, Hans.... 7, 10, 120, 133, 136, 144, 153, 156, 188, 244.
  73. Laiglesia, Álvaro de....................... 192
  74. Lalinde, Lucio................................. 233
  75. Leibniz, G. W................................. 44
  76. Lopez Vigil, José Ignacio............... 216
  77. Lopez Vigil, María.......................... 216
  78. Luke Evangelist (Bible)................. 14, 26, 32, 145, 202, 309
  79. Machado, Antonio......................... 65, 78, 137
  80. Mancebo, Pedro Jesús................. 19
  81. Manzana, José.............................. 67, 221
  82. Mark Evangelist (Bible)................. 14, 102
  83. Martín Patino, José María............. 263
  84. Martín Velasco, Juan.................... 263
  85. Martínez Eraso, Juan-Cruz........... 282
  86. Marx, Karl...................................... 74, 146, 309
  87. Masabo, Damaso.......................... 292
  88. Matthew Evangelist (Bible)........... 15, 26, 48, 168, 204, 309
  89. Matussek, Paul............................. 216
  90. Mello, Anthony of.......................... 246-247
  91. Menéndez Pidal, Ramón.............. 19
  92. Metz, Johannes Baptist................ 156
  93. Meucci, Antonio............................. 25
  94. Meza Ingar, Carmen..................... 159, 170, 192
  95. Miller, Arthur.................................. 73, 81
  96. Newman, John-Henry.................... 226, 244
  97. Nietzsche, F. W............................. 59, 209
  98. Nino Bravo (Ferri Llopis, Luis M.)....... 78
  99. Nsanzurwimo, Marc...................... 137
  100. Ortega y Gasset, José................... 61, 78, 258
  101. Pagola, Jose Antonio..................... 67
  102. Palazzi, F. & Filipi, S. S................. 41
  103. Pascal, Blaise................................ 33, 79, 209
  104. Pereda, Carlos............................... 200
  105. Perinat, Adolfo............................... 229
  106. Plato.............................................. 33
  107. Plutarch......................................... 230
  108. Pohier, Jacques............................ 156
  109. Pollack, Sidney.............................. 286
  110. Prada, Miguel Angel...................... 200
  111. Quevedo, Francisco...................... 19
  112. Ratzinger, Joseph......................... 260, 285
  113. Ray, Nicholas................................ 82
  114. Revelation (Bible).......................... 72
  115. Rigaud, Francis............................. 49
  116. Ríos, Miguel.................................. 65, 223, 239
  117. Roger of Taizé.............................. 198
  118. Romans, Letter (Bible).................. 15, 260
  119. Ruiz Prados, Teresa..................... 209
  120. Saint-Pierre, Michel....................... 49
  121. Sánchez Agesta, Luis................... 75
  122. Serrat, Joan Manuel..................... 18, 65, 78
  123. Setién, José María........................ 67
  124. Shillebeeckx, Edward................... 156
  125. Socrates....................................... 234
  126. Spencer, Herbert.......................... 41
  127. Teilhard de Chardin, Pierre.......... 263
  128. Thomas Aquinas.......................... 33
  129. Tierno Galván, Enrique................ 261, 263
  130. Tilliette, Xavier............................. 221
  131. Van Leuven, A. Th....................... 229
  132. Vega Carpio, F. Lope.................. 55
  133. Voltaire, François........................ 33
  134. Yepes, Narciso........................... 208
  135. Zamboray, Ignacio...................... 241
  136. Zephaniah (Bible)....................... 146
  137. Zunzunegi, José María............... 67

 

 

LEADERS cited

If the proper name appears on consecutive pages, they go with a hyphen.

For example, it is 166-170 instead of 166, 167, 168, 169, 170.

 

 

LEADERS cited                       Pages

  1. Alexander the Great........................137

  2. Andropov, Yuri.................................215

  3. Areilza, José María de.....................89

  4. Attila.................................................268

  5. Bagaza, Jean Baptiste..................10, 120, 140, 152, 181, 272-273,                                                          289, 295.

  6. Batista Zaldivar, Fulgencio...............264

  7. Bonino, Emma..................................299

  8. Butros Ghali......................................299-300

  9. Buddha (Siddhartha Gautama).........245

  10. Buyoya, Pierre..................................272, 295-296, 299, 300, 302-304.

  11. Carrero Blanco, Luis.........................85, 89, 96

  12. Carter, Jimmy...................................142, 299

  13. Castro, Fidel.....................................28, 136, 226

  14. Cid (Rodrigo Diaz de Vivar)..............19

  15. Clement XII.......................................84

  16. Clinton, Bill.......................................301, 303

  17. De Gaulle, Charles...........................28, 50, 52

  18. Deng Xiaoping..................................141

  19. Eisenhower, Dwight David................28

  20. Fernandez Miranda, Torcuato...........89

  21. Fraga Iribarne, Manuel......................47, 191, 262, 266

  22. Franco, Francisco.........17-20, 28, 39, 43, 49, 51-52, 56, 79-80, 85, 89-90, 95-97, 99, 101, 106-107, 142, 154, 191, 195, 202, 235, 304.

  23. Gandhi, Mohandas K.........................18, 138, 221, 226, 260

  24. Genseric.............................................268

  25. Goebbels, Joseph..............................26

  26. González, Felipe................................101, 208, 268, 285

  27. Gregory VII.........................................268

  28. Guerra, Alfonso..................................209

  29. Gutiérrez Mellado, Manuel.................196

  30. Habyarimana, Juvenal........................140, 289, 298

  31. Hitler, Adolf.........................................17, 71

  32. John Paul II..............6, 120, 130, 136, 144, 153-157, 159, 162, 171, 175-180, 184-188, 192, 199, 203, 206, 226, 249, 253, 267,   285, 296

  33. John XXIII                                            28, 124, 146, 253

  34. Juan Carlos I of Spain.........................18, 52, 95, 101, 192, 195

  35. Julius Caesar.......................................63, 137

  36. Khrushchev, Nikita...............................28

  37. Leo I the Great (pope).........................268

  38. Leo XIII................................................226, 262

  39. Lumumba, Patrice Emery....................293

  40. Mandela, Nelson..................................262, 301-303

  41. Mao Zedong (Mao Tse-tung)...............107, 141

  42. Mayor Zaragoza, Federico...................299

  43. Micombero, Michel...............................293-295

  44. Mirerekano, Paul..................................292-294

  45. Mobutu, Joseph...................................185, 295

  46. Mohamed VII of Granada.....................84

  47. Mussolini, Benito..................................17, 25

  48. Mwambutsa IV......................................293-294

  49. Ndadaye, Melchior................................296-298, 300-303

  50. Ndayikengurukiye, Jean Bosco.............301

  51. Ndayizeye, Domitien.............................304

  52. Nkurunziza, Pierre.................................305, 307

  53. Ntare V...................................................293

  54. Ntaryamira Cyprien................................298

  55. Ntibantunganya, Sylvestre.....................299

  56. Nyerere, Julius.......................................187, 293-294,300-303

  57. Nzomukunda, Alice................................308

  58. Paul VI...................................................130, 146, 171-172

  59. Peter, St.................................................178, 258, 268

  60. Pius XII...................................................226

  61. Primo de Rivera, José Antonio...............99, 256

  62. Reagan, Ronald.....................................142, 192, 215, 221, 226, 248

  63. Rwagasore, Louis..................................292-293

  64. Sarkozy, Nicolas....................................306

  65. Serrano Súñer, Ramón..........................17

  66. Suárez, Adolfo.......................................107, 192, 202

  67. Tarancón, Vicente Enrique y..................72, 95, 154

 

PEOPLE cited

If the proper name appears on consecutive pages, they go with a hyphen.

For example, it is 166-170 instead of 166, 167, 168, 169, 170.

 

 

 

PEOPLE  cited                      Pages         

 

  1. Alcoitia, Celsa.......................... 261
  2. Alcoitia, Jacinto........................ 8, 23-24, 31, 255-257, 259-260.
  1. Alonso, Alfredo................... 56-59, 73, 87, 96-97, 99, 107, 114.
  2. Álvarez, Francisco.................... 100, 110, 139, 194
  3. Amparo (Tarazona)................... 226
  4. Ana (Nyangwa and Italy)........... 136, 166-167, 169, 181
  5. Ayensa, Serafin......................... 191-192, 231-232, 241, 252
  6. Bancako, Germain.................... 126-127
  7. Barampangaje, Gabriel............. 126
  8. Begoña (Madrid)....................... 112
  9. Béjar, Javier............................... 64
  10. Beny, José María....................... 274-276
  11. Berges, Cecilio.......................... 108-109, 206, 218
  12. Bikomagu, Jean........................ 300
  13. Bimazubute, Gilles.................... 297
  14. Blaise of Sebaste, St................. 230
  15. Bonilla, Vicente......................... 109, 218, 242, 254, 282
  16. Bouvia, Elizabeth....................... 224
  17. Brando, Marlon.......................... 85, 249
  18. Bravo, A. L................................ 178
  19. Búa, Ramón.............................. 8, 198, 204, 206-207, 210, 237,
  20.                                           245, 252, 259-260.

 

  1. Bududira, Bernard.................... 6, 165, 167, 169-171, 194, 300.

 

  1. Bueno, Jesús Vicente.............. 51, 108, 242
  2. Butunagu (Nyanwa)................ 166
  3. Caballero, María...................... 24, 42
  4. Calvo Francés, Julio................ 95-96, 108
  5. Calvo, Ángel............................ 38, 205
  6. Canisius (Gitega).................... 167
  7. Carlos, Don (Novallas)............ 8, 230
  8. Casimira (Novallas).................193, 195-196, 198, 203, 231-232,
  9.                                         241.

 

  1. Castellà, Manuel..................... 274
  2. Castro, David.......................... 70, 87 209
  3. Cebolla, Benjamín.................. 189
  4. Celia (Vitoria).......................... 57-59
  5. Cerdán, Paco......................... 10, 37-38, 53
  6. Cisneros, Manolo.................... 220
  7. Cisneros, Pili........................... 241
  8. Coloma, Jesús........................ 205
  9. Cuenca, Florián....................... 57, 108
  10. Cuesta Cabanillas, Manuel..... 282
  11. Curtin, Michael........................ 243
  12. Dammert, Joseph................... 183
  13. Díez Alegría, Luis................... 104
  14. Díez Alegría, Manuel.............. 104
  15. Dionisio (Novallas).................. 212
  16. Dury, Agnès............................ 306
  17. Edurne (Madrid)...................... 114
  18. Emma (Ibuye).......................... 121
  19. Esther (Vitoria)......................... 57-58
  20. Ezquerro (Tarazona)................ 80
  21. Feijoo, Manuel......................... 44
  22. Fermín, San............................. 257
  23. Forcén, Juan Pablo................. 108-109, 198, 205-206, 218
  24. Fredes (Vitoria)........................ 74
  25. García Revilla, Vicente............ 43
  26. García, Eusebio....................... 205
  27. Garde, Rafael.......................... 39, 80
  28. Garrido, Javier......................... 82
  29. Gisèle (Brussels)..................... 71-72
  30. Goetz, Tony............................. 297
  31. González, Miguel..................... 261
  32. Gonzalo, María........................ 17-21, 24-26, 35, 42-43, 114,
  33.                                          162, 172, 222.

 

  1. Guajardo, Antonio................... 136, 181
  2. Guido (Nyangwa and Italy)...... 136, 166-167, 169, 181
  3. Harakandi, Hermas.................. 194
  4. Hernando, Santos.................... 58, 68, 73, 87, 96-97, 99, 
  5.                                          106-108, 114, 191, 237.

 

  1. Hews (judge)............................ 224
  2. Hurtado, Manuel...................... 45, 197, 237
  3. Ibáñez Velázquez, José.......... 198
  4. Iríbar, Ramoni.......................... 114
  5. Jaime, Pilar (SER)................... 227
  6. Jesus of Nazareth........ 8, 22-23, 26, 28, 48, 59, 74-75, 84, 97,
  7.                               102, 114, 141, 143-144, 146, 149-150,
  8.                               156-157, 159, 162, 168, 178, 184-185,
  9.                               202, 208, 212, 223, 233-234, 241, 251,
  10.                               253, 259-261, 309.

 

  1. Jiménez, Enrique..................... 193-194
  2. John the Baptist (Bible)............ 216
  3. José (Novallas)........................ 193, 196, 241
  4. José Luis (medical, Novallas)... 232
  5. Juan Lorenzo, San (Cetina)...... 84
  6. Juani (Novallas)........................ 209, 219
  7. Julio (Novallas)......................... 195
  8. Kadogo (Gitega)....................... 166-170
  9. Kana, Asterio............................ 194
  10. Kanyenkiko, Anatole................. 298
  11. Karibwami, Pontien................... 297
  12. Kaseba, André.......................... 187
  13. Kaziri, Karoli.............................. 127
  14. Kinigi, Sylvie.............................. 297
  15. Labrador, Carmen..................... 283
  16. Lidia (Oñati).............................. 101, 104
  17. López de Briñas, J. Luis (Vitoria).......... 73
  18. López, José Luis (México).................. 152
  19. López, Tomás........................... 205, 218
  20. Lovald, Johan L........................ 305
  21. Luis-Mari (Vitoria)..................... 73
  22. Madeleine (Nyangwa & France).... 136, 181
  23. Magallón, Alfredo.................... 136, 163-164, 166, 181
  24. Makarakiza, André................... 6, 164-170, 179, 181, 194
  25. Malika (Sandown).................... 67
  26. Manterola, Matilde................... 136, 181
  27. Manuel (Calatayud).................. 78
  28. Marcial, St................................ 238
  29. María (Madrid)......................... 250
  30. María-José (Novallas)............. 193
  31. Marie-Claire (Brussels)............ 72
  32. Marisa (Ntita)........................... 170
  33. Mariví (Burundi)....................... 179
  34. Martínez, Ciriaco..................... 197
  35. Martínez, Saturnino.................. 282
  36. Matud, Salvador....................... 100
  37. Méndez, José........................... 76, 82, 86-87, 96, 100, 237
  38. Mendoza, Chema..................... 42-43, 77-78
  39. Mendoza, Jesús....................... 42, 114
  40. Mendoza, Juan......................... 30, 42, 75, 114
  41. Mendoza, María Atocha........... 30, 42
  42. Mendoza, Vicente.........17-19, 24-26, 42-43, 70, 77-78, 82-84,
  43.                                114, 162, 172, 179, 195, 243.

 

  1. Meneses, Jorge de................... 286
  2. Miranda, Roberto...... 4, 6-8, 10, 12-13, 117, 120, 127,  136,
  3.                             138, 140, 142, 145, 152-154, 157-158,
  4.                             162-167, 169-171, 176, 179-184,
  5.                             188-189, 193-194, 223-225, 227, 253.

 

  1. Monedero, Teresa.................... 282
  2. Muhirwa, André........................ 292-293
  3. Muñoz, José............................. 273
  4. Musega, Venansi..................... 126-127
  5. Nakumuryango, Petero............ 126-127
  6. Nati (Logroño).......................... 159-161
  7. Ndayikeza, Juvénal.................. 297
  8. Ndikumwami, Richard.............. 297
  9. Ngendahayo, Jean Marie......... 303
  10. Nizigama (Nyangwa)................ 166
  11. Nkébero (Nyangwa)................. 166
  12. Nkinarudobeye, François......... 172
  13. Nonay, Florentino..................... 10, 109, 218-219
  14. Ntamwana, Simon.................... 300
  15. Ntiruhwama, Jean..................... 292
  16. Nurwakera, Joachim................. 297
  17. Nyandwi, Evarísito................... 126
  18. Nzohabonayo, Sylvère............. 172
  19. Oliver, Victorio......... 119, 125, 136, 139, 141, 162-163, 165,
  20.                             170, 179, 190, 197.

 

  1. Omar (Sandown)....................... 64
  2. Onaindia, Bernardo................... 76
  3. Ortiz de Retez, Yñigo................ 286
  4. Pajares, Andrés......................... 56, 58
  5. Paloma (Madrid)........................ 112
  6. Parets, Miguel........................... 183
  7. Patricia (Nyangwa & USA)........ 136, 181
  8. Peces, Juan............................... 75
  9. Pedro (parish Belén, Vitoria)...... 73
  10. Pedro de Dueñas, St.................. 84
  11. Pilar (Logroño)........................... 159
  12. Pío (Nyangwa)........................... 10, 126, 134
  13. Rita (Nyangwa & Italy)............... 10, 136, 138, 181
  14. Romero Angulo, Blas................. 108, 206
  15. Romero, Guadalupe................... 10, 249, 269, 290-291
  16. Romero, Raúl............................. 56-59, 109, 197, 205, 218
  17. Rouco, Antonio María......  ........ 168, 276
  18. Royo, José María...............  ...... 204-206
  19. Rubio, Arsenio....................   ..... 21
  20. Ruhuna, Joachim..............  ....... 170, 193-194, 300
  21. Ruiz, Javier..........................  .... 208, 231-232, 241
  22. Rwagasore, Marie Rose......  .... 292
  23. Rwagasore, Prince.................... 292-293
  24. Samuele (Nyangwa & Italy)....... 10, 136, 138, 181
  25. Sánchez, Paco.......................... 109, 218, 225
  26. Satur (Novallas)........................ 195
  27. Secunda (Nyangwa & Burundi)................. 136, 181
  28. Sentamo, Engelbert.................. 297
  29. Sheen, Martin........................... 249
  30. Silva, Jesús.............................. 43-44
  31. Sorando, Rosendo................... 274
  32. Suquía, Ángel........................... 95, 277
  33. Tejero, Antonio (23-F)............. 192, 196
  34. Teresa (Nyangwa & Italy)........ 136, 139, 166, 181
  35. Tornos, Pascual....................... 109, 218
  36. Tuhabonye, Pierre................... 166-170
  37. Uriel, Félix................................ 109, 205
  38. Urruticoechea, Captain............. 220
  39. Vazquez, Vicente..................... 198
  40. Yolanda (auto-stop).................. 200

 

 

POPULATIONS cited

If the proper name appears on consecutive pages, they go with a hyphen.

For example, it is 166-170 instead of 166, 167, 168, 169, 170.

______________________________________________________________________________________

 

In this Index, the current name prevails. For example: it is Russia instead of USSR;

It is Germany instead of FRG and GDR; Congo-Kinshasa instead of Zaïre, etc.

 

However, the annual NEWS section is selected since 1966 and

Some ancient denominations are bound to appear as well.

______________________________________________________________________________________

 

POPULATIONS cited........................ Pages

 

AFRICA.......... 9, 120, 124, 161, 171, 179, 184-187, 213, 250, 256, 286, 305, 321.

 

UPPER VOLTA............. 184

 

ALGERIA...................... 61, 155

 

BURUNDI...... 7, 10, 14-15, 107, 114-116, 119, 125-126, 131, 135, 139,

                   141, 148, 159-161, 171-172, 175-180, 187, 189, 194-195,

                   217, 252, 257, 284-287, 290-298, 300-306, 321.

 

Bisoro.................. 12, 127, 164

Bugarama............ 293

Bujumbura..... 6, 15, 114-116, 126, 137, 143, 152, 154, 157, 160-161,

                  170, 172, 175, 183, 289, 293, 296, 299, 302, 306, 308.

 

Bururi................... 165, 169-171, 182, 194, 300.

Butare.................. 126, 170

Butwe.................. 169-172, 182

Gitega.................. 126, 136, 142, 165-166, 170-171, 181-182, 193-194,

                        297, 300, 306.

 

Gitongo................ 288

Ibuye................... 121

Kavumu............... 293

Kibumbu.............. 127

Kirundo................ 295

Mpimba............... 302

Mugamba............ 169

Muramvya........... 293

Mutaho................ 288

Muyange............. 117, 152

Ndava................. 124-125

Ngozi................... 295

Ntita.................... 10, 120, 170, 288

Nyangwa............. 6-7, 10, 117, 119, 123, 125-126, 131, 134-137,

                       139-141, 145, 150, 154,157, 163-171, 177-178,

                       180-183, 193-194, 288.

 

Rumeza............... 166, 169

Rushanga............ 6, 126

Ruyigi.................. 306

Rwisabi............... 288

 

CAMEROON........................ 299

Yaounde........ 299

 

CONGO (formerly Zaïre).... 27, 47, 184, 187, 286, 293, 295, 298, 300,

                                     304, 307.

Kinshasa........ 6, 115, 117, 153, 171, 185, 293

 

CONGO (Brazzaville).......... 184, 187

 

IVORY COAST.................... 184, 296

 

EGYPT................................. 52, 155, 192

Cairo........... 299

 

ETHIOPIA............................. 300

 

GHANA................................ 184, 187

 

EQUATORIAL GUINEA...... 286

 

KENYA................................ 55, 184, 186, 300, 301-302, 304

Nairobi........ 186

 

LIBYA................................. 136, 262, 302

 

MOROCCO......................... 61, 85

Casablanca.... 64

 

MOZAMBIQUE.................. 301

 

NAMIBIA........................... 302

 

NIGERIA........................... 55, 209, 301-302

 

RWANDA.......... 9, 14, 126, 135, 140, 170-171, 186, 250, 286-289,

                      292-299, 304, 307, 323.

 

Biruyi.............. 170

Kigali.............. 186, 298

 

SOUTH AFRICA.................. 18, 48, 226, 248, 262, 285, 301-304

 

TANZANIA........................... 14, 135, 187, 287, 293, 296-298, 300-305.

Arusha........... 293, 297-298, 301-303

 

TUNISIA............................... 230

Carthage........ 230

 

UGANDA.............................. 14, 101, 296, 298, 300-302, 304, 307

 

ZAMBIA................................ 300

 

ZIMBABWE.......................... 141, 300

 

 

AMERICA....... 15, 18, 44, 72, 85, 130, 147, 154-155, 181, 215, 221-222, 284,

                              288, 295.

 

ARGENTINA........... 27, 107, 119, 142, 154, 192, 198, 209, 215, 259

Buenos Aires......................... 324

 

BOLIVIA............................... 48

 

BRAZIL................................. 27, 56, 136, 155, 226, 248

 

CANADA.............................. 176, 272

 

COLOMBIA.......................... 27, 47, 61, 90, 222, 248

 

CUBA................................... 28, 136, 264, 285

 

ECUADOR........................... 107, 270

 

EL SALVADOR................... 141, 198

 

GRANADA (Caribbean)..... 209

 

GUATEMALA...................... 141

 

LATIN AMERICA........ 107, 130, 142, 153, 187, 203, 215-216, 262, 279

 

NICARAGUA....................... 73, 136, 226

 

PERU.................................... 6-7, 10, 51, 55, 159, 170, 183

 

Cajamarca..... 183

Lima............... 6, 10, 159, 170, 192

 

PUERTO RICO.................... 85, 264

 

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA....... 15, 28, 41, 72, 77, 117, 136, 209, 222,

                                                  247, 284, 299.

Alaska............ 28, 41

Hawaii............ 28, 161

Miami............. 324

New York....... 25, 72-73, 154, 159, 248, 263, 273, 297

Washington.... 154, 295

 

UNITED STATES OF MEXICO.................. 27, 50, 101, 155, 176, 248, 273

 

URUGUAY........................... 73, 85, 209

 

VENEZUELA........................ 61, 264

 

 

ASIA & OCEANÍA..... 155, 286, 308.

 

AFGHANISTAN................... 136, 141, 284

 

ARMENIA............................. 285

 

CHINA.................................. 48, 69, 107, 155

Beijing............ 141

 

INDIA.................................... 23, 138, 155, 226

Bombay.......... 246

 

INDOCHINA (former colony)......... 95

 

IRAN..................................... 85, 130, 136, 141, 284

 

ISRAEL................................. 18, 48, 72

Nazareth........ 26, 75, 150, 156, 162, 184-185, 233, 253, 259,

                   309, 325.

 

JAPAN.................................. 119, 155, 209, 271, 284, 299

Hiroshima....... 186

 

MIDDLE (near) EAST.......... 257

 

NEW ZEALAND................... 248

 

PAKISTAN........................... 68

 

PALESTINE......................... 15

Bethlehem...... 25

 

PAPUA NEW GUINEA........ 286

 

PHILIPPINES....................... 27, 209

 

QATAR................................. 323

 

SAUDI ARABIA................... 18

 

SOUTH KOREA.................. 285

Seoul         192, 285

 

SYRIA................................... 257

 

TURKEY............................... 61

 

UNITED ARAB EMIRATES.................. 323

 

VIETNAM.............................. 85, 249, 258

 

 

EUROPE...... 14, 17, 45, 61, 70, 77, 79, 99, 100, 108, 115-117, 120, 132-135, 136-137, 139, 146, 148-149, 153-156, 157, 160-161, 167-168, 175, 183, 185-187, 193-194, 196, 204, 209, 218, 221, 231, 248, 261, 283, 287-288, 290, 293, 295, 298-300, 301, 303, 307-308, 325.

 

AUSTRIA.............................. 61, 176, 221

 

BELARUS............................ 18

 

BELGIUM.............. 70-73, 80, 176, 187, 248, 292, 297, 301, 308, 323

 

Antwerpen...... 71

 

Brussels......... 6, 114-115, 117, 70, 72, 87, 117, 129, 140, 170, 181,

                   248, 294

 

Kemmel.......... 72

Louvain.......... 38, 80

Waterloo........ 72

Zaventon........ 160

 

BULGARIA........................... 321

 

CZECHOSLOVAKIA........... 18, 50, 52, 55, 119

 

DENMARK........................... 101, 285

 

FRANCE.........14, 27-28, 50-52, 55-56, 61, 64, 70, 73, 78, 85, 136, 141,

                   153-155, 176-177, 187, 192, 198, 209, 239, 250,

                   272-273, 284, 287-288, 298, 301, 323.

 

Cannes.......... 249

Lourdes.......... 51, 160

 

Paris............... 10, 18, 51, 56, 66, 72, 107, 113, 129, 141, 147, 157,

                    222, 257, 263, 260

.

Taizé.............. 198

Tarbes............ 51

 

GERMANY..... 14, 56, 69, 70, 73, 90, 101, 119, 126, 136, 141, 154, 199,

                    221, 239, 271-272, 315, 323.

 

Berlin............................... 221-222, 247, 271

Frankfurt Main................. 247

Heidelberg....................... 247

Munich............................. 247

 

GREECE.............................. 100, 192

Thessaloniki........................... 153

 

IRELAND.............................. 52, 83

 

ITALY.......... 61, 70, 83, 101, 130, 137, 139, 142, 154, 164, 170, 176,

                 199, 226, 239, 250, 268, 285, 323.

 

Bergamo........ 136

Milan.............. 136

 

Rome............. 4, 27, 45, 63, 71, 89, 93, 101, 104, 130, 136, 141,

                   143-144, 146, 156, 170, 184-185, 226, 230, 233,

                   251, 253, 266, 268, 279.

 

Sardinia.......... 136

Trent.............. 26, 79

Tuscany......... 268

 

LITHUANIA.......................... 137

 

LUXEMBOURG................... 70, 323

 

NORWAY............................. 69, 91, 101, 262, 305

 

NETHERLANDS.................. 50, 61, 70, 101, 226, 308, 322, 323

Amsterdam.... 160

 

POLAND.............................. 18, 154, 176, 226

 

PORTUGAL......................... 90, 96, 100, 187, 261, 272, 323

 

RUSSIA................................ 17, 163, 221

 

Moscow & Kremlin................ 18, 229, 272

USSR.................................... 18, 28, 39, 272-273, 284-285, 315

____________________________________________________________________

 

 

SPAIN..........2, 7-8, 10, 12, 13-15, 17-19, 27, 32, 35, 41, 43-44, 47-52, 54,

                    56, 60-61, 64, 66-73, 75, 78-80, 83, 85-86, 89, 90-91, 95,

                    99-101, 103, 107, 116-117, 119, 126, 129-130, 132-133,

                   136-137, 139, 141-143, 154, 159, 164, 176, 178, 181, 183, 192,

                   194-196, 199, 200-203, 207, 209,  221-224, 226-228, 239-240,

                   243, 246, 248-251, 254, 256-257, 261-265, 271-274, 276-279,

                   281, 284-285, 323-324.

 

ANDALUCÍA........................ 73, 87, 287

Almería................................ 76, 237

Cádiz................................... 257

Cordoba.............................. 112

Granada.............................. 75-76, 84, 237, 239

Jaén.................................... 112

Linares................................ 112

Sevilla.................................. 95, 78, 112, 143, 196

Vélez Rubio......................... 76

Villafranca de Córdoba....... 112

 

ARAGÓN.............................6, 12, 19, 68, 70, 73, 77-78, 83, 89, 96, 100-103, 109,

                                             119, 124, 130, 139, 143, 152, 154, 166, 181, 183-184,

                                            189, 192, 197, 203, 215, 219, 224, 228, 239, 247, 251,

                                            255, 257, 262, 285, 288, 323.

Albarracín............................ 97

Alcalá de Moncayo.............. 99

Añón de Moncayo............... 89, 99

Ariza.................................... 19, 56, 224

Atea..................................... 7, 189, 225, 227

Bárboles.............................. 10, 270

Borja.................................... 218-219

Bulbuente............................ 94, 99

Cabañas de Ebro................ 252

 

Calatayud...............6-7, 25, 70, 72, 77-78, 82-83, 114, 117, 152-153,

                         179, 189-190, 195, 198, 219, 224-225, 237, 244,

                         253, 256.

 

Casetas............................... 25

Castejón de Alarba............. 227

 

Cetina..................10, 13, 19, 22, 24-25, 42-43, 48, 55, 82, 84-85,

                       113, 129, 172, 198, 255, 323.

 

Gallur.................................. 143

La Almunia.......................... 42

Litago.................................. 88, 99

Magallón............................. 218-219

Morata de Jalon.................. 218

 

Novallas............ 7-8, 10, 189-196, 198-200, 202-213, 215, 218, 222,

                       224-225, 233, 237-244, 252, 257.

 

Somontano de Moncayo....... 4-5, 10, 25, 42, 85-88, 92-94, 99, 107,

                                      129, 191.

 

Tarazona.......... 6-8, 10, 12, 24-25, 28, 36-37, 41, 43-45, 50, 54,

                     58-59, 67, 76, 80, 86-87, 95-96, 99-101, 107-108,

                     110, 119-120, 125, 136, 139, 141, 152, 154-155, 158-159,

                          165, 169-170, 178-179, 183, 189-194, 196-197, 200, 204,  207,

                          211, 216, 218-219, 223, 225, 227, 233, 237, 238, 240-241,

                          251-253, 255, 282.

 

Terrer.................................... 223

Teruel.................................... 96, 197

Trasmoz................................ 99

Vera de Moncayo................. 10, 87-89, 95-96, 99, 143, 191, 258

 

Zaragoza......... 10-11, 17-20, 24, 28, 39, 50, 54, 56, 58, 77, 82, 93,

                     95-96, 99-100, 108, 136, 143, 154, 166, 175, 

                         178-179, 184, 190, 193, 196,  203, 209, 215, 218-219, 223-224,

                         242-244, 253, 254-255, 259, 271-273, 323.

 

ASTURIAS........................... 55, 73, 75, 100, 104, 117, 136

Gijón...................................... 104

 

BALEARES.......................... 278

 

CANTABRIA........................ 271

Comillas................................. 224, 262, 280

Reinosa................................. 272

Santander.............................. 246-247

 

CASTILLA-LA MANCHA.... 26, 100, 108, 197, 206

Albacete................................ 197, 206

Toledo................................... 26, 100, 108

 

CASTILLA-LEÓN................ 278

Burgos................................... 56, 68

Castilla (Kingdom)................. 73

La Granja (Segovia).............. 77, 81

La Seca (Valladolid).............. 222

Salamanca............................ 230, 247, 263

Segovia................................. 77, 81

Soria...................................... 10, 25, 30, 93, 108

Venta de Baños..................... 43

Vinuesa (Soria)..................... 10, 25, 30

Zamora.................................. 100

 

CATALUÑA......................... 107, 109, 203, 262, 279  (Catalonia)

Banyoles................................ 106-107

 

Barcelona.............................. 20, 39, 47, 69, 72, 78, 91, 95, 143, 196,

                                      198, 217-218, 228, 244, 262, 272-273.

 

Cambrils................................ 203

Girona................................... 106-107

Salou..................................... 203

 

COMUNIDAD VALENCIANA..................... 199, 279, 323

Alicante.................................. 13, 100, 322

Orihuela................................. 100

Valencia................................. 79, 95, 143, 195-196, 209

 

EXTREMADURA................. 112

Guadalupe............................. 112

Mérida................................... 112

 

GALICIA............................... 43-44, 70-71, 73, 198, 264, 279

Benposta (Ourense).............. 43

Ourense................................ 43-44

Rías Bajas............................. 44

Santiago de Compostela....... 44, 95, 107

 

MADRID, Comunidad de

Alcalá de Henares................. 95, 99, 200

Leganés................................. 245

 

Madrid...........6-8, 10, 15, 18-19, 24, 28, 39, 41, 44, 61, 69, 72, 75,

                  79, 86, 91, 95, 101, 104, 107, 112, 114-115, 117, 119,

                     143-144, 146, 168, 175, 178, 182, 195-196, 200, 206, 216-218,

                     224-226, 229, 233, 238, 243-245, 250-253, 255, 262, 267,

                     269-274-277, 279-285, 323, 325.

 

Móstoles................................ 28

 

MURCIA

Cartagena............................. 75

 

NAVARRA........................... 68, 108-109, 136, 181, 190, 202, 255, 262

Pamplona.............................. 86

Tudela................................... 25, 43, 190

 

PAÍS VASCO..................... 14, 49, 54, 56, 67, 80, 109, 181, 209, 262, 276, 279, 288,

                                            323  (Basque Country)

 

Álava..................................... 68, 73, 275

Bilbao.................................... 39, 50, 60-61, 90, 95, 196, 208

Guipúzcoa............................. 73, 101, 275

Irún........................................ 51

San Sebastián....................... 50, 94, 245

 

Vitoria-Gasteiz...................... 49, 54-57, 60, 67-68, 73, 75, 197, 218,

                                      221, 262, 323

 

Vizcaya.................................. 73, 275

 

RIOJA, LA............................ 192, 262, 288

Calahorra.............................. 100, 110

Logroño................................. 100, 110, 159, 161

 

SWEDEN.............................. 69, 119, 176, 209, 262

 

SWITZERLAND................... 119, 133, 176, 222, 262, 323

Geneva.......... 293

Zurich............. 222

 

UKRAINE............................. 18

 

UNITED KINGDOM............. 52, 55, 73, 101, 154, 248, 270-271, 284-285,

                                     323.

Aylesford............................... 244

England................................  60-61, 67, 71, 187, 226, 242-244, 250, 284.

Freshwater............................ 64

Gillingham............................. 242

Kent....................................... 226, 242-244, 273

 

London.............10, 18, 55, 61, 63, 65, 67, 73, 74, 129, 226, 244,

                     262, 264, 270, 301

 

Oxford................................... 226

Rainham................................ 226, 243

Sandown............................... 61, 63, 243

Southampton......................... 60-61, 70

Wales.................................... 137

Wight, Isle of.......................... 10, 60-62, 243

 

VATICAN............   4, 8, 18, 23, 27, 29, 31, 33, 36, 44-45, 47, 50, 59, 71,

                         83, 86, 95, 99, 110-111, 120, 130-131, 136, 144-146,

                         153-154, 156-157, 159, 162-163, 176-177, 184, 187,

                         192, 197-199, 201, 203-204, 207, 224, 226, 229, 248,

                         251-253, 258, 263, 264-266, 270, 272, 274, 276-278,

                         281, 285, 289, 310, 323, 325.

 

YUGOSLAVIA (old)............ 18

 

UN (United Nations)........... 15, 69, 222, 262, 304, 308

 

 

Biographical Sketch in 2018

 

 

 

 

PEDRO MENDOZA GONZALO was born in CETINA (Zaragoza, Aragón-Spain) in 1948. He has worked in the Basque Country (1969-1972), Aragon (1973-1976 and 1980-1984), Burundi (1976-1980), Madrid (1984-1995) and Valencian Community (1995 to 2011). His work stays in France (since 1968), United Kingdom (1970, 1984), Belgium (1971) and Italy (1978, 1979) Europeanized him before Spain entered the EU (1986). Other trips for various purposes also opened horizons to him: Germany (1971, 1990, 1992), Bulgaria (1990), Luxembourg (1988), Netherlands (1971, 1989), Portugal (1994, 2012), Rwanda (1979), Switzerland (1981, 1988), Vatican (1978, 1979), United Arab Emirates (2017) and Qatar (2017). In Burundi, Central Africa, among other things, he taught adult literacy in Kirundi. His intimate memories of Africa globalized him forever.

 

 

 

He was a Catholic priest 13 years (1972 to 1985), four of them as a missionary in Burundi and the others as a rural priest in Spain. He went in and out freely. In 1985, he began another life in Madrid, without any kind of transitional economic benefit, without money or reserve assets and without academic titles (he had never dedicated himself to that). “You are in COU” —they reminded him at the Complutense University of Madrid (UCM). [1] Because his seven previous years of Philosophy and Theology, including degree, are in the Catholic Spain “Foreign Studies” not homologable, neither totally nor partially. He was not even recognized by Latin. During three courses, the two women professors of Latin in UCM said the same thing to him: “Mr. Mendoza, you do not come to classes, just to the exam”.

 

 

From September-1985, he was a secondary school teacher in private centers: Latin, Greek, Philosophy, Ethics and Religion. In February-1986, he obtained a degree in Theology (Vitoria-Gasteiz). In September-1990, he obtained the degree in Philosophy (Madrid, UCM). In November-1992, he entered as interim professor of Philosophy for IES —Institute of Secondary Education— in the Community of Madrid. In the summer of 1995, he also approved two public competitions for IES of the Valencian Community: Philosophy and Psychopedagogy. In November-2000, he obtained the Doctorate in Philosophy and Education Sciences (Madrid, UCM).

 

 

 

As a teacher, he worked for 22 years in full time: 3 in Private and 19 in Public. Two years in Latin and Greek, nine years as Psychopedagogue of IES and eleven years in Philosophy. He taught in Baccalaureate-BAC: History of Philosophy, Sociology, Psychology, Philosophy and Citizenship. And in ESO: Ethical-Civic Education, Orientation and Professional Initiation, Classical Culture and Education for Citizenship. That is, more than 4,000 students in fantastic ages (12 to 20 years) went through his life until 2011, when he retired.

 

The intense teaching and personal experience of the author is being summarized in his own website www.pedromendoza.com, where he also refers to his books, which are these:

 

  • Year 1986: Jóvenes rurales: por qué pasamos de la Iglesia (Rural youth: Why we do not like the Church). Zaragoza 1986: Movimiento Rural Cristiano (Rural Christian Movement).

 

  • Year 1995: El debate en el aula: ensayo para la tolerancia (The debate in the classroom: an essay for tolerance), where he systematizes almost 700 classroom debates during FIVE academic courses with youngsters from 14 to 20 years old. Madrid 1995: Ediciones Pedagógicas (Pedagogical Editions).

 

  • Year 2000: La creatividad en la enseñanza secundaria (Creativity in secondary education). Doctoral thesis, with unanimous Outstanding of the five members of the Court: www.e-libro.net (Buenos Aires & Miami, 2000).

 

  • Year 2002: Siete autores significativos (Seven significant authors), seven books in one, new editorial genre: “Even if we lived 100 years reading a daily book (36,525 books), we would only reach half of those published every year in Spain; let us be intelligent, we need synthesis”: www.ecu.fm (Alicante 2002: ECU).

 

  • Year 2003: Educación global, ya (Global education, now). An overview of the educational problem, in 546 well-documented pages: www.e-libro.net (Buenos Aires & Miami, 2003).

 

 

 

[1] COU: Curso de Orientación Universitaria (Course of University Orientation), last course of Secondary, before the university.

 

The autor in 2003, aged 55

 

  • Year 2004: Atrévete a pensar (Dare to think), this book should be an annex in the university registration envelope” —some clever readers predicted: www.ecu.fm (Alicante 2004: ECU, 2ª edición).

 

 

  • Year 2010: Mi memoria histórica (1948-1988) —My historical memory (1948-1988). A rigorous and intimate reference on his first 40 years of life. He speaks of his own life not because of cheap protagonism, but because he is the one who knows best. But his life is just a pretext, he only wants “to participate in the interpretation of our collective history”. To remember is to learn —he emphasizes—, for “the amnesic peoples are always starting from zero”. See:

http://www.bubok.es/autores/pmendoza  or

 

https://www.bubok.es/libros/187278/Mi-memoria-historica-19481988

 

 

 

  • Year 2015: Por qué pasamos de la iglesia (Why we do not like the Church). Second edition, digitized, of the previous book of 1986, that it was the thesis of degree in Theology (Feb-86), with this theme and original title: Implications of the process of secularization in a rural pastoral. The book is in:

https://www.bubok.es/libros/242100/Por-que-pasamos-de-la-iglesia

 

There is also a synthesis in:

https://www.pedromendoza.com/publicaciones/libros/

 

 

  • Year 2017: Moments (1948-1988). Translation to English of Mi memoria histórica (1948-1988). It is only digital edition. I add some specific “footnotes for the English edition” and some contextual photos. Amazone, Kindle Direct Publishing, 1st edition in English: https://kdp.amazon.com

 

 

  • Year 2018: Moments (1948-1988). Translation to English of Mi memoria histórica (1948-1988). It is only digital edition. I add some specific “footnotes for the English edition” and some contextual photos. Bubok Publishing, 2nd edition in English:

https://www.bubok.es

 

 

 

Abstract

 

 

 

The work Moments (1948-1988) is not a novel, but a historical document. It is a translation of the book Mi memoria histórica (1948-1988), published in 2010 in Spanish: www.bubok.es. Its author, PEDRO MENDOZA GONZALO, expresses a synthesis of his first 40 years of life.

 

But what he is really trying to do is to participate in the interpretation of collective history. There are contents of high value in diverse fields: Sociology, Politics, Pedagogy, History, Psychology, Philosophy, Theology or Third World.

 

At the age of 17, in 1966, he began some notebooks entitled Vivencias y Pensamientos (Experiences and Thoughts), which are the documentary base. Each entrance is dated and related to the world context, symbolized by real news until 1988.

 

Pedro Mendoza was a Catholic priest for 13 years, and 13 others for training as a seminarian. He was secularized in 1985. The moments-limits of his public and intimate life appear here red hot.

 

Direct entry to the entire book in English:

https://www.bubok.es/libros/254725/Moments-19481988

 

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